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Sense of Coherence and Connectedness to Nature as Predictors of Motivation for Practicing Karate

Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland
Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, 80-309 Gdansk, Poland
Department of Physical Education and Sports, Matej Bel University, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovakia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2483;
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 12 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
PDF [704 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]


Background: Physical activity yields exceptionally positive results when it takes place out in the open air, in contact with nature. Both contact with nature and practicing sport constitute a certain kind of philosophy of life and living by its rules plays a vital role in positive mental health―understood as maintaining a high sense of coherence. Martial arts are examples of sports that are rooted in a philosophy. The goal of this study was to explore the links between a sense of coherence and connectedness to nature in the context of motivations for practicing karate. Methods: A total of 127 practitioners of karate were examined using the Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives (IPAO), the Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, and the Connectedness to Nature Scale. Results: The most important objective for women training karate was a fit, shapely body, and for men the most important objective was physical fitness. Connectedness to nature had the strongest positive relationship with the measure of physical fitness (in both genders). A sense of comprehensibility increased men’s motivational conflict, whereas, in women, this IPAO dimension was positively related to feeling emotionally connected to the natural world. Connectedness to nature was related to motivational conflict positively in women and negatively in men. Feeling emotionally connected to the natural world correlated with a sense of comprehensibility, a sense of manageability, and a sense of meaningfulness. Sense of comprehensibility and sense of meaningfulness tended to increase with age. Conclusions: Understanding both the natural environment and the utility of setting sport-related goals led to increasing one’s efforts on the way to both successes and defeats, and, most of all, overcoming one’s weaknesses. View Full-Text
Keywords: connectedness to nature; sense of coherence; mental health; karate; sport connectedness to nature; sense of coherence; mental health; karate; sport

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Lipowski, M.; Krokosz, D.; Łada, A.; Sližik, M.; Pasek, M. Sense of Coherence and Connectedness to Nature as Predictors of Motivation for Practicing Karate. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2483.

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