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Article

Acute and Cumulative Effects of Haze Fine Particles on Mortality and the Seasonal Characteristics in Beijing, China, 2005–2013: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study

1
State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather & Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry of CMA, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
2
Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
3
Institute of Urban Meteorology, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100080, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132383
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Cardiopulmonary Health)
We observed significant effects of particulate matter (PM2.5) on cause-specific mortality by applying a time-stratified case-crossover and lag-structure designs in Beijing over a nine-year study period (2005–2013). The year-round odds ratio (OR) was 1.005 on the current day with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 for all-cause mortality. For cardiovascular mortality and stroke, the ORs were 1.007 and 1.008 on the current day, respectively. Meanwhile, during a lag of six days, the cumulative effects of haze on relative risk of mortality, respiratory mortality and all-cause mortality was in the range of 2~11%. Moreover, we found a significant seasonal pattern in the associations for respiratory mortality: significant associations were observed in spring and fall, while for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiac and stroke, significant associations were observed in winter. Moreover, increasing temperature would decrease risks of mortalities in winter taking fall as the reference season. We concluded that in summer, temperature acted as a direct enhancer of air pollutants; while in winter and spring, it was an index of the diameter distribution and composition of fine particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-stratified; case-crossover; haze; PM2.5; mortality; seasonal time-stratified; case-crossover; haze; PM2.5; mortality; seasonal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.; Zheng, C.; Ma, Z.; Quan, W. Acute and Cumulative Effects of Haze Fine Particles on Mortality and the Seasonal Characteristics in Beijing, China, 2005–2013: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132383

AMA Style

Li Y, Zheng C, Ma Z, Quan W. Acute and Cumulative Effects of Haze Fine Particles on Mortality and the Seasonal Characteristics in Beijing, China, 2005–2013: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(13):2383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132383

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Yi, Canjun Zheng, Zhiqiang Ma, and Weijun Quan. 2019. "Acute and Cumulative Effects of Haze Fine Particles on Mortality and the Seasonal Characteristics in Beijing, China, 2005–2013: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 13: 2383. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132383

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