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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010028

Compliance with Tuberculosis Screening in Irregular Immigrants

1
Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia 42122, Italy
2
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Metaboliche e Neuroscienze, Modena 41125, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IJERPH: 15th Anniversary)
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Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in many regions of the world, especially in the poorest areas. For this reason, screening for active and latent forms must be considered when dealing with high-risk groups such as irregular immigrants in Western countries. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by recruiting subjects aged ≥15 years who underwent a tuberculin skin test at a dedicated National Health Service Centre in a northern Italian province between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. These participants were followed up until 31 December 2016. We aimed at evaluating an experimental protocol for active and latent tuberculosis screening, focusing on patient compliance, feasibility, and capability to detect clinical forms of the disease. We enrolled 368 irregular immigrants, i.e., immigrants not having a valid residence permit and who were therefore not entitled to choose a general practitioner. In total, 90.22% of these completed all the steps for the screening of active TB, while 87.33% also undertook screening for the latent form of the disease. Homelessness, self-reported prostitution, female sex, and employment status adversely affected compliance. Chronic alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of no beginning or interruption of the procedures. All of the five patients with active TB successfully completed the treatment. Overall, adherence to the screening program was high compared to other studies in immigrants, possibly owing to organizational factors such as the availability of cultural mediators, the network between the different health services, the presence of dedicated nursing staff and a free-of-charge service. In addition, selected vulnerable subgroups should be targeted using tailored screening and follow-up programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: tuberculosis; screening for tuberculosis; public health; immigrants tuberculosis; screening for tuberculosis; public health; immigrants
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Bonvicini, F.; Cilloni, S.; Fornaciari, R.; Casoni, C.; Marchesi, C.; Greci, M.; Monici, L.; Nicolini, F.; Vinceti, M. Compliance with Tuberculosis Screening in Irregular Immigrants. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 28.

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