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Open AccessArticle

Molecular Verification of Bloom-forming Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Their Secondary Metabolites in the Nakdong River

1
Nakdong River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, Goryeong 40103, Korea
2
School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1739; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081739
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
Aphanizomenon spp. have formed harmful cyanobacterial blooms in the Nakdong River during spring, autumn, and now in winter, and the expansion of blooming period and area, associated with the global warming is predicted. The genus Aphanizomenon has been described to produce harmful secondary metabolites such as off-flavors and cyanotoxins. Therefore, the production of harmful secondary metabolites from the Aphanizomenon blooms in the Nakdong River needs to be monitored to minimize the risk to both water quality and public health. Here, we sampled the cyanobacterial blooms in the Nakdong River and isolated ten Aphanizomenon strains, morphologically classified as Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region nucleotide sequences confirmed this classification. We further verified the harmful secondary metabolites-producing potential of A. flos-aquae isolates and water samples containing cyanobacterial blooms using PCR with specific primer sets for genes involved in biosynthesis of off-flavor metabolites (geosmin) and toxins (microcystins, saxitoxins and cylindrospermopsins). It was confirmed that these metabolite biosynthesis genes were not identified in all isolates and water samples containing only Aphanizomenon spp. Thus, it is likely that there is a low potential for the production of off-flavor metabolites and cyanotoxins in Aphanizomenon blooms in the Nakdong River. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; internal transcribed spacer (ITS); 16S rRNA; cyanobacterial toxin biosynthesis genes; Nakdong River Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; internal transcribed spacer (ITS); 16S rRNA; cyanobacterial toxin biosynthesis genes; Nakdong River
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Park, H.-K.; Kwon, M.-A.; Lee, H.-J.; Oh, J.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, I.-S. Molecular Verification of Bloom-forming Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Their Secondary Metabolites in the Nakdong River. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1739.

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