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Open AccessArticle

Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems

1
Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123, China
2
Department of Computer Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK
3
Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226019, China
4
XJTLU-Huai’an Research Institute of New-Type Urbanization, Huai’an 223005, China
5
Jiangsu Province Hydrology and Water Resources Investigation Bureau Suzhou Branch, Suzhou 215011, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020195
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
Affected by regular tides, bidirectional water flows play a crucial role in surface river systems. Using optimization theory to design a water quality monitoring network can reduce the redundant monitoring nodes as well as save the costs for building and running a monitoring network. A novel algorithm is proposed to design an optimum water quality monitoring network for tidal rivers with bidirectional water flows. Two optimization objectives of minimum pollution detection time and maximum pollution detection probability are used in our optimization algorithm. We modify the Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) algorithm and develop new fitness functions to calculate pollution detection time and pollution detection probability in a discrete manner. In addition, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used to simulate hydraulic characteristics and pollution events based on a hypothetical river system studied in the literature. Experimental results show that our algorithm can obtain a better Pareto frontier. The influence of bidirectional water flows to the network design is also identified, which has not been studied in the literature. Besides that, we also find that the probability of bidirectional water flows has no effect on the optimum monitoring network design but slightly changes the mean pollution detection time. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-objective particle swarm optimization; water quality monitoring network; optimum monitoring network design; bidirectional water flows; storm water management model multi-objective particle swarm optimization; water quality monitoring network; optimum monitoring network design; bidirectional water flows; storm water management model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, X.; Yue, Y.; Wong, P.W.H.; Zhang, Y.; Tan, J. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020195

AMA Style

Zhu X, Yue Y, Wong PWH, Zhang Y, Tan J. Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(2):195. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Xiaohui; Yue, Yong; Wong, Prudence W.H.; Zhang, Yixin; Tan, Jianhong. 2018. "Optimum Water Quality Monitoring Network Design for Bidirectional River Systems" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15, no. 2: 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020195

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