- freely available
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050898
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. EMBRace Procedure
2.3. Study Design
2.4. Data Collection
2.4.1. Measures of Participant Change
2.4.2. Qualitative Assessments
2.5. Data Analysis
3.1. Quantitative Findings
3.2. Qualitative Findings
Trump. As (Ben is) an African American male who will turn 18 in (Trump’s) administration, who I feel has a lot of potential and gifts. I am better today than I was in November and December (of 2016) when I had a lot of anxiety about our place in the world and just everything. But I’m not like I was—having anxiety—but I don’t know if I’m having that now, I’m just very sad and disappointed, and trying very hard in my daily journal to not write up a Trump contingency plan that involves me looking for jobs all over the world.
- ...we don’t like need to like have race talks every single day, but like I think like once or twice a week is like, fine, like when something actually happens like even when I was coming out of my orchestra practice, there was—I was standing waiting for my mom’s car to pull up, so like next to (a prominent wealthy location), and there was...a family that was walking past and she was like ‘walk faster I don’t wanna get robbed’ and like I was like the only person standing there and she said it like really loud so I heard it. So it was just like, things like that, that I would actually talk about more.
- How did that make you feel?
- Umm…not good, at all, like why would, if I’m holding an instrument in my hand and my hands are in my pockets why would you think I was concerned about anything that you were doing?
- Mmhmm. And did you speak to your parents, mom about this?
- I told her and she was like ‘oh like, that’s sad’, and then we talked about it for a little bit but *shrugs*.
3.2.2. Session 1—“Say it Loud”
My sister and I had this conversation within the last couple of weeks. I woke up one morning and wrote this freeform poem and shared it with her. And shared it with (my sons) and some of the stuff she didn’t even know. Because my mom would never really talk about it. So I feel better about it today. But I think it’s something that definitely isn’t over.
- What do you think it means to feel like you should “say it loud, you’re Black and you’re proud”?
- Stand up for your own. Don’t be ashamed of your race. Because every race has issues and problems that they have to go through. I think every race—including the majority sometimes—can be discriminated against. But I feel like if you say it loud like it used to show that you support your race and what they’re going through.
3.2.3. Session 2—“We Gon’ Be Alright”
- B. E.:
- The emotions of that them saying you know you don’t know what you’re doing with your kid and he’s not smart as you think he is. And all of that kind of stuff that. I feel like that was gaslighting in a lot of ways.
- I salute you for standing on top of that.
- B. E.:
- I don’t know that I have…
3.2.4. Session 3—“I Got Enemies, Got a Lot of Enemies”
- B. E.:
- So retelling the story: when I was there and you know having a conversation about being offered this opportunity. And. And being told that’s not for people like you. I probably would have asked for clarification, which I didn’t. I would probably have come in with alternatives—in ways that you know ‘I’m willing to do X in this or whatever with the kids or whatever around the house but this is something that I’m going to go to.’ And that’s not something that I’m asking your permission to go to. And you know just make it not so much negotiation not so much I am asking your permission to live my life, but this is what’s going to happen kind of switched around little things. I believe that I probably did a lot of asking when I probably didn’t need to.
- And you think that would’ve changed your level (of racial stress)?
- B. E.:
- I think that it would have because it would be more empowering as opposed to me coming in because that was part of the agreement. If you need off, I need off you know that was the deal.
Put yourself into their shoes...like when they grew up without any money in that household. Like all the money that they had, it was it was going to like...it was either being like coughed up in taxes or bills or something like that. So they didn’t actually have enough resources like in their school system...like it didn’t have like microscopes like that. So. So we didn’t actually have enough resources to be able to provide a good education.
3.2.5. Session 4—“Does it Matter if You’re Black or White?”
And so I realized through that conversation that my normal response is you know some people are horrible. And I asked (Ben) if that made you feel better when I say screw em. And he said ‘it does not make me feel better’. Me just saying, you know ‘screw em—you know, they’re horrible. Don’t let them get to you. You know or something you know it doesn’t matter. You’ll see one day you’ll be their boss or something like that.’ So (Ben) said like that doesn’t help. So we kind of tried to talk through what would help and he was like ‘you know I said you know maybe we could sue them and you get a check’.
- And when you feel like you’re afraid of saying something wrong—how does that affect what you actually say?
- Um. I think I start to start to like say I started talking a little slower. And I try to craft what I’m saying instead of just blurting it out...like right now I’m just saying what I’m thinking. If an issue were to happen or a situation like that I would start to slow down and be like okay so how do I say this without making them upset but I still want to get my point across.
- What kind of stress do you think that brings a lot of people of color who have to (debate out the blue)?
- Like that would like instantly jump me to a five (regarding stress levels from 0–10). Like it could be like oh wait. Why are we debating right now? Like I was not prepared for this...like instantly bring me up. Yeah.
3.2.6. Session 5—“Ain’t No Stopping us Now”
- B. E.:
- I can say it’s interesting: when I come in I’m usually at a 2. Last week when I left I was at a 2, but weeks before that, like week 3, I came in at a 2 and left at a 7...I think I’ve tried to make some deliberate (changes), I mean, I wouldn’t be homeschooling. Like all those things ended up being, ok, what can I do to kind of change that around.
And I like that—I like that correction ‘cause it’s like we don’t know the answer, but it’s probably a combination, that he’s definitely taking things, and I think, you know we’ll have more all together to reflect on what we, what (Clinician) and I have seen so, I definitely think in some ways that he’s definitely been engaged with this stuff and also there’s been some nice moments like last week where we were able to see like wow, he’s still recalling stuff from even before EMBRace, that predates EMBRace, about this idea about the myths of needing like, you know, like, you just pull yourself up by the bootstraps ‘cause Mom you told me like if you’re part of the problem you’re not part of the solution. So I think it’s both your being more aware and him being engaged, but also communicating your feelings.
- …Like every week that I’ve been actively monitoring like my stress levels and stuff like that. I’ve started to come up with different strategies and that’s been helpful to like calm myself down or just like not talk to someone just like that.
Since the program has started, the anxiety level is lower. I think that that has something to do with the fact that it’s not so close to January 20th (2017) and the inauguration than it was. But also through our conversations with (Ben), ‘cause I said that, the first week or two, I’m not trying to feel like I’m constantly kind of walking around saying, that we’re not having conversations about race, that we’re having conversations about schoolwork. But I just felt I was doing a lot of nagging. And nobody was listening to me and everybody was rolling their eyes, and ‘there she goes again’. But through the conversations with (Ben) here, I think my anxiety—and I recognize it as anxiety, not so much parenting (emphasis added)—or like “I need to get these things in,” ‘cause he’s not gonna be in my house forever—but I heard that he does listen to me, and I always wasn’t sure about that, which is crazy to say, but I learned that he does listen and respect my opinion. And I wasn’t entirely confident that that was happening. So I think that—whenever I did, as I kind of went through my life, it doesn’t feel as latent or as pressurized. It is, I have this finite amount of time and it feels more conversational, you could say? Natural.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Session||Engaging in RS Content||Managing Stress||Bonding and Effective Delivery||Example Activities|
“Say it Loud”
|Cultural Socialization||Racial Encounter Knowledge||Increase parental warmth and interconnectedness through shared racial/cultural experiences and heritage|
Deliver parenting and familial behaviors with affection
|Create a family tree that includes people, places, and traditions important to the family|
“We Gon’ Be Alright”
|Preparation for Bias||Racial Encounter Knowledge||Deliver parenting and familial behaviors with protection||Complete a mock debate examining the importance of preparing youth for discrimination|
“I Got Enemies, Got a Lot of Enemies”
|Promotion of Distrust||Racial Encounter Stress Management||Deliver parenting and familial behaviors with correction||Practice racial storytelling and narrative sharing on a racial encounter from the past|
“Does it Matter if You’re Black or White?”
|Egalitarianism||Racial Encounter Stress Management and Coping||Deliver parenting and familial behaviors with connection||Role-play responses to egalitarian messages in various settings|
“Ain’t No Stopping Us Now”
|Applied Skills||Racial Encounter Stress Management and Coping||Deliver skillful parenting practices with affection, protection, correction, and connection||Integrate four tenets of RS for increased competency|
|Coding Nodes and Subnodes||Definitions|
|Racial encounter coping||The cognitive and behavioral efforts made to master, tolerate, or reduce external and internal demands and conflicts among them.|
|Racial encounter knowledge||An individual knowing that a racial encounter is occurring.|
|Self and other awareness||Observing oneself within the racialized moment and becoming aware of others.|
|Racial encounter stress management||The management of stress in the midst of a racial encounter.|
|Stress appraisal||The appraisal of one’s level of stress, which involves both the recognition that the encounter is racial and that it creates in one’s self and others cognitive, emotional, and physiological reactions during and after the encounter.|
|Stress reappraisal||The reappraisal of the encounter after engaging in stress-reduction techniques, particularly for reframing a situation to see it in a positive light.|
|Racial encounter coping||The cognitive and behavioral efforts made to master, tolerate, or reduce external and internal demands and conflicts among them.|
|Engagement||One’s ability to engage—rather than avoid—to best cope with racial encounters.|
|Resolution||Individuals making healthy decisions that are neither an under- or over-reaction during and after racial encounters.|
|Psychosocial Well-Being||The interaction of psychological and social factors related to functioning and wellness (e.g., physical and mental).|
|Externalizing problems||Undesirable behaviors directed outwardly, including conduct problems, aggression, disobedience, etc.|
|Internalizing problems||Undesirable behaviors that are directly inwardly, including anxiety, depression, fear, psychosomatization, etc.|
|Wellness||Desirable functioning that can be inward and outward elements of mental and physical health, including autonomy, acceptance, growth, accomplishment, etc.|
|B. E. (Parent)||Ben (Child)|
|Experiences with RD 1||RaLES 2||3.67||3.11||3.44||3.56|
|General stress||PSS 3||3.40||3.10||2.8||3.2|
|MHC-SF EWB 4a||15||15|
|MHC-SF SWB 4b||15||16|
|MHC-SF PWB 4c||25||27|
|Psychosocial—Youth||BPM TOT 5||1.11||1.0||1.26||1.63|
|BPM ATT 5a||1.17||1.0||1.0||1.67|
|BPM INT 5b||1.17||1.0||1.5||1.67|
|BPM EXT 5c||1.0||1.0||1.29||1.57|
|Perception of coping||REMS 6||4.5||4.25||2.5||3.75|
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