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Factors Related to Unemployment in Europe. A Cross-Sectional Study from the COURAGE Survey in Finland, Poland and Spain

1
Neurological Institute C. Besta IRCCS Foundation, Neurology, Public Health and Disability Unit, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
Neurological Institute C. Besta IRCCS Foundation, Clinical and Experimental Epileptology Unit, 20133 Milan, Italy
3
E. Medea Scientific Institute, Conegliano-Pieve di Soligo Research Centre, 31015 Conegliano Veneto, Italy
4
Information, Evidence and Research Unit, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
5
Ageing, Disability and Functioning Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
6
Department of Medical Sociology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-034 Krakow, Poland
7
Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, University of Barcelona, CIBERSAM, 08830 Barcelona, Spain
8
Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, 28029 Madrid, Spain
9
Department of Psychiatry, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040722
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract

Background: Research addressing the impact of a large number of factors on unemployment is scarce. We aimed to comprehensively identify factors related to unemployment in a sample of persons aged 18–64 from Finland, Poland and Spain. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, factors from different areas were considered: socio-demographic indicators, health habits, chronic conditions, health state markers, vision and hearing indicators, and social networks and built environment scores. Results: Complete data were available for 5003 participants, mean age 48.1 (SD 11.5), 45.4% males. The most important factors connected to unemployment were health status indicators such as physical disability (OR = 2.944), self-rated health (OR = 2.629), inpatient care (OR = 1.980), and difficulties with getting to the toilet (OR = 2.040), while the most relevant factor related to employment were moderate alcohol consumption (OR = 0.732 for non-heavy drinkers; OR = 0.573 for infrequent heavy drinkers), and being married (OR = 0.734), or having been married (OR = 0.584). Other factors that played a significant role included presence of depression (OR = 1.384) and difficulties with near vision (OR = 1.584) and conversation hearing (OR = 1.597). Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of selected factors related to unemployment, and suggest public health indications that could support concrete actions on modifiable factors, such as those aimed to promote physical activity and healthy behaviors, tackling depression or promoting education, in particular for the younger. View Full-Text
Keywords: unemployment; self-rated health; alcohol consumption; survey data; physical activity; healthy behaviors; depression; model selection unemployment; self-rated health; alcohol consumption; survey data; physical activity; healthy behaviors; depression; model selection
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Leonardi, M.; Guido, D.; Quintas, R.; Silvaggi, F.; Guastafierro, E.; Martinuzzi, A.; Chatterji, S.; Koskinen, S.; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B.; Haro, J.M.; Cabello, M.; Raggi, A. Factors Related to Unemployment in Europe. A Cross-Sectional Study from the COURAGE Survey in Finland, Poland and Spain. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 722.

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