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Open AccessArticle

Sediment Facilitates Microbial Degradation of the Herbicides Endothall Monoamine Salt and Endothall Dipotassium Salt in an Aquatic Environment

1
Centre for AgriBioscience, Agriculture Victoria, 5 Ring Rd, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3088, Australia
2
Biometrics Unit, Hamilton Centre, Agriculture Victoria, 915 Mt Napier Rd, Hamilton 3300, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102255
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Herbicide Applications)
Endothall dipotassium salt and monoamine salt are herbicide formulations used for controlling submerged aquatic macrophytes and algae in aquatic ecosystems. Microbial activity is the primary degradation pathway for endothall. To better understand what influences endothall degradation, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to (1) evaluate the effects of different water and sediment sources on degradation, and (2) determine if degradation was faster in the presence of a microbial community previously exposed to endothall. Endothall residues were determined with LC-MS at intervals to 21 days after endothall application. Two endothall isomers were detected. Isomer-1 was abundant in both endothall formulations, while isomer-2 was only abundant in the monoamine endothall formulation and was more persistent. Degradation did not occur in the absence of sediment. In the presence of sediment, degradation of isomer-1 began after a lag phase of 5–11 days and was almost complete by 14 days. Onset of degradation occurred 2–4 days sooner when the microbial population was previously exposed to endothall. We provide direct evidence that the presence and characteristics of sediment are of key importance in the degradation of endothall in an aquatic environment, and that monoamine endothall has two separate isomers that have different degradation characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesocosm; irrigation canal; irrigation channel; biodegradation; persistence; aquatic weed mesocosm; irrigation canal; irrigation channel; biodegradation; persistence; aquatic weed
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Islam, M.S.; Hunt, T.D.; Liu, Z.; Butler, K.L.; Dugdale, T.M. Sediment Facilitates Microbial Degradation of the Herbicides Endothall Monoamine Salt and Endothall Dipotassium Salt in an Aquatic Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2255.

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