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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 916;

The Toxic Effect of Herbicidal Ionic Liquids on Biogas-Producing Microbial Community

Institute of Forensic Genetics, Al. Mickiewicza 3/4, 85-071 Bydgoszcz, Poland
Institute of Food Technology of Plant Origin, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznan, Poland
Institute of Biosystem Engineering, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 50 Wojska Polskiego St., 60-637 Poznan, Poland
Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Dojazd 11, 60-632 Poznan, Poland
Department of Biotechnology and Food Microbiology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 48, 60-627 Poznan, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Herbicide Applications)
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of herbicidal ionic liquids on the population changes of microorganisms used in a batch anaerobic digester. The influence of the following ionic liquids: benzalkonium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate (BA)(2,4-D), benzalkonium (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetate (BA)(MCPA), didecyldimethylammonium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate (DDA)(2,4-D), didecyldimethylammonium (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetate (DDA)(MCPA), as well as reference herbicides (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA) and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D) in the form of sodium salts on biogas production efficiency was investigated. The effective concentration (EC50) values were determined for all tested compounds. (MCPA) was the most toxic, with an EC50 value of 38.6–41.2 mg/L. The EC50 for 2,4-D was 55.7–59.8 mg/L. The addition of the test substances resulted in changes of the population structure of the microbiota which formed the fermentation pulp. The research was based on 16S rDNA analysis with the use of the Next Generation Sequencing method and the MiSeq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). There was a significant decrease in bacteria belonging to Firmicutes and Archaea belonging to Euryarchaeota. A significant decrease of the biodiversity of the methane fermentation microbiota was also established, which was expressed by the decrease of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the value of Shannon’s entropy. In order to determine the functional potential of bacterial metapopulations based on the 16SrDNAprofile, the PICRUSt(Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States)tool was used, which allowed to determine the gene potency of microorganisms and their ability to biodegrade the herbicides. In the framework of the conducted analysis, no key genes related to the biodegradation of MCPA or 2,4-D were found, and the observed decrease of their content in the supernatant liquid was caused by their sorption on bacterial biomass. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaerobic digester; biodegradation; herbicidal ionic liquids; MiSeq technology anaerobic digester; biodegradation; herbicidal ionic liquids; MiSeq technology

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Czarny, J.; Piotrowska-Cyplik, A.; Lewicki, A.; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, A.; Wolko, Ł.; Galant, N.; Syguda, A.; Cyplik, P. The Toxic Effect of Herbicidal Ionic Liquids on Biogas-Producing Microbial Community. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 916.

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