The Toxic Effect of Herbicidal Ionic Liquids on Biogas-Producing Microbial Community
AbstractThe aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of herbicidal ionic liquids on the population changes of microorganisms used in a batch anaerobic digester. The influence of the following ionic liquids: benzalkonium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate (BA)(2,4-D), benzalkonium (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetate (BA)(MCPA), didecyldimethylammonium (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetate (DDA)(2,4-D), didecyldimethylammonium (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetate (DDA)(MCPA), as well as reference herbicides (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA) and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D) in the form of sodium salts on biogas production efficiency was investigated. The effective concentration (EC50) values were determined for all tested compounds. (MCPA)− was the most toxic, with an EC50 value of 38.6–41.2 mg/L. The EC50 for 2,4-D was 55.7–59.8 mg/L. The addition of the test substances resulted in changes of the population structure of the microbiota which formed the fermentation pulp. The research was based on 16S rDNA analysis with the use of the Next Generation Sequencing method and the MiSeq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). There was a significant decrease in bacteria belonging to Firmicutes and Archaea belonging to Euryarchaeota. A significant decrease of the biodiversity of the methane fermentation microbiota was also established, which was expressed by the decrease of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the value of Shannon’s entropy. In order to determine the functional potential of bacterial metapopulations based on the 16SrDNAprofile, the PICRUSt(Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States)tool was used, which allowed to determine the gene potency of microorganisms and their ability to biodegrade the herbicides. In the framework of the conducted analysis, no key genes related to the biodegradation of MCPA or 2,4-D were found, and the observed decrease of their content in the supernatant liquid was caused by their sorption on bacterial biomass. View Full-Text
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Czarny, J.; Piotrowska-Cyplik, A.; Lewicki, A.; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, A.; Wolko, Ł.; Galant, N.; Syguda, A.; Cyplik, P. The Toxic Effect of Herbicidal Ionic Liquids on Biogas-Producing Microbial Community. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 916.
Czarny J, Piotrowska-Cyplik A, Lewicki A, Zgoła-Grześkowiak A, Wolko Ł, Galant N, Syguda A, Cyplik P. The Toxic Effect of Herbicidal Ionic Liquids on Biogas-Producing Microbial Community. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(6):916.Chicago/Turabian Style
Czarny, Jakub; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Lewicki, Andrzej; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Wolko, Łukasz; Galant, Natalia; Syguda, Anna; Cyplik, Paweł. 2019. "The Toxic Effect of Herbicidal Ionic Liquids on Biogas-Producing Microbial Community." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 16, no. 6: 916.
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