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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 448;

Predictors of Workplace Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in New Zealand

School of Psychology, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
School of Psychology, University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
School of Management, Massey University, Palmerston North 0745, New Zealand
School of Management, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001, Australia
Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Queensland 4111, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cary Cooper
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 3 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Stress, Human Health and Wellbeing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [297 KB, uploaded 27 April 2016]


Background: The negative effects of in-person workplace bullying (WB) are well established. Less is known about cyber-bullying (CB), in which negative behaviours are mediated by technology. Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the current research examined how individual and organisational factors were related to WB and CB at two time points three months apart. Methods: Data were collected by means of an online self-report survey. Eight hundred and twenty-six respondents (58% female, 42% male) provided data at both time points. Results: One hundred and twenty-three (15%) of participants had been bullied and 23 (2.8%) of participants had been cyber-bullied within the last six months. Women reported more WB, but not more CB, than men. Worse physical health, higher strain, more destructive leadership, more team conflict and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more WB. Managerial employees experienced more CB than non-managerial employees. Poor physical health, less organisational support and less effective organisational strategies were associated with more CB. Conclusion: Rates of CB were lower than those of WB, and very few participants reported experiencing CB without also experiencing WB. Both forms of bullying were associated with poorer work environments, indicating that, where bullying is occurring, the focus should be on organisational systems and processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: conservation of resources; bullying; cyber-bullying conservation of resources; bullying; cyber-bullying
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gardner, D.; O’Driscoll, M.; Cooper-Thomas, H.D.; Roche, M.; Bentley, T.; Catley, B.; Teo, S.T.T.; Trenberth, L. Predictors of Workplace Bullying and Cyber-Bullying in New Zealand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 448.

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