“The substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries… through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery and thus strengthen resilience”.(p. 7)
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Synergising Public Health Concepts with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
3.2. Social Determinants of Health
…in the Eastern suburbs over in Aranui, just...no power, no water, no toilets, no food in the cupboards basically, no money because they couldn’t [get money]—the “EFTPOS” machine wasn’t working, none of the shops were open. [The father of one family] had no petrol in his car… so they were all at home. But there they are huddled around... they’d got a fire going in some tires outside the front door, and the kids were sleeping in the lounge and on mattresses on the floor, just terrified and nothing to eat… we went back the next day and nothing was better for them….(KR, 2012)
3.3. Inequality and Inequity
I was in my bedroom and my bedroom wall collapsed… I couldn’t get out my door… so my flatmate had a carer in there and she had to create a pathway for me and I knew as soon as my bedroom wall collapsed I wouldn’t be living at that house. …I couldn’t get down there [the local Civil Defence welfare centre] by myself so I had to get one of my neighbours to push me down there because of all the liquefaction and the roads were bent... But I had to stay with my neighbour that night on a two seater couch because the [welfare centre] said … because my neighbour had an impairment as well, they said that they couldn’t accommodate people with disabilities… they didn’t even ask us about “oh what supports do you guys need”, we just got told, they said “we can’t accommodate you”. [Which was] insulting, because they just saw the impairment and not the person… Yep, during the earthquake it happened quite a bit especially during like the first week after the February earthquakes….(Rangimarie, interviewed in 2012)
3.4. The Inverse Care Law
I asked the Māori community if we could include the Asian and migrant community, because they would be outside [of the mainstream response], to which I got an immediate agreement.(SMS, 2012)
Our goal was really about helping people help themselves by actually seeing that they were able to get the things they were entitled to, and that was the first priority… the people that were falling out of the safety net if you like, that the government had put in place.(SM, 2012)
…the focus for us [the Māori response] was people that often end up marginalised … [that] mainstream doesn't necessarily cater for…”.(OD, 2012)
I think it was the Friday after the [February] earthquake, I [had] a meeting and right at the bottom of Westmorland hills there were about 20 Port-a-loos all lined up. So we go up the hill to [names place] and we say, ‘got a bit of a walk to the Port-a-loo at the bottom of the hill mate’, and he says ‘ah no full sewerage here... nearly everyone on the hill’s rung them—why did you put them there for, they’re not needed, we’ve got sewerage’. They stayed there for weeks, while the people in the Eastern suburbs had nothing. Poor planning, poor follow up!(SMS, 2012)
The whole of [names street], which stretches between two bridges and takes up about 2 km of roadway, a lot of houses, not one toilet was delivered. We went without; there was not one Port-a-loo in sight for the whole period [six weeks]. Yep, there was nothing on our street at all, and the surrounding streets, so it made life hugely difficult.(HD)
3.5. Community-Based and Community Development Approaches
After the Christchurch earthquake we sat down with a number of other marae [Māori community centres], we were sponsored by the Hutt [City] Council, and we ended up with 10 marae dedicated to improving their standards. Not only have we tested our [emergency] procedures… we have expanded to include the doctors, the pharmacy, the local community centre, the ham radio operators. It is preparing “the community” to take responsibility for itself so that in an emergency we can look after our neighbours, we know what is available, we can get on doing it and not be a burden on the resources that will be required in a major emergency elsewhere. So we …train our people… in how to operate this facility in an emergency.(Bill Rawiri, Ngā Hau e Whā Nga o Paparārangi, Film for Change Aotearoa, 2015 )
We have gone from a rickety old whare [house] to having this building completely refurbished. We have gone from having no Civil Defence emergency resilience programme, to having container loads of material out there, gone from having no money in the bank, to money in the bank, gone from having toxic land that we are restoring now and we have programmes operating with “the community” and the involvement of everybody around us, it is just stunning. The whole thing is community involvement, and is by the people, for the people, owned by the people, nga hau e wha [Ngā hau e whā refers to the people of the four winds, in the Māori world this a term that means including everybody] so it is all theirs and sort of 10 min from the Capital and Parliament.(Bill Rawiri, Ngā Hau e Whā o Paparārangi, Film for Change Aotearoa, 2015 , italics our emphasis)
3.6. Hard-to-Reach Populations or Hard-to-Reach Organisations?
way back in … 1993 there was [Cyclone] Bola, the Tairawhiti [and] Edgecumbe earthquakes and I said to Civil Defence in Wellington… the places for the disaster areas, the sector posts ought to be every marae in this country! …You people, you want to put people into the school or church, where … [are] the mattresses, …the cooking facilities,… the toilet facilities? So it’s time you people recognise that the marae is the only place in this country for sector posts… I’ve been saying that for years … [But] No because they want to keep it to themselves….(CA, 2012)
…It was a bit slow in us [the Māori Recovery Network] getting involved with the authorities, in fact it took us 8 days to break in… [And]… from that single meeting we then had a link directly to Civil Defence, so every day from then on all our reports went to Civil Defence….(SMS)
3.7. The Prevention Paradox
3.8. The Inverse Prevention Law
…Round about November  we started preparing ourselves [for a future seismic event]… I found Civil Defence completely useless… because it’s not designed for people with a disability.(Shane, 2012)
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