Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections
2. Climate Change Reality, Community Vulnerability, and Resilience
2.1. Climate Change: Reality of Our Time
2.2. Defining Community
2.3. Community Vulnerability and Resilience
3. Resilience: The New Frontier
3.1. Conceptualizing Resilience
3.2. Evolution of the Concept of Resilience in Academic Discourses
3.3. Typology of Resilience
3.3.1. Nature of the Threat
3.3.2. Nature of the System
3.3.3. Nature of the Response
4. Community Resilience: The Focused Level
4.1. Characterizing a Climate Resilient Community
- Takes intentional action to enhance the personal and collective capacity of its members and institutions to respond to, and influence the course of social and economic change.
- Is organized. It has the capacity to recognize problems, institute priorities, and act.
- Fosters the factors that enhance community resilience by improving community members’ capabilities; i.e., by learning to live with change and uncertainty; nurturing diversity for reorganization and renewal; combining different kinds of knowledge; and creating opportunity for self-organization.
- Adapts to constant changes. It does not treat shocks and disturbances only as episodic, but regards many of them as constant and gradual threats.
- Builds its resilience through cumulative mechanisms and pathways over time. It is knowledgeable and skillful in assessing, managing, and monitoring its risks. It can learn new skills and build on past experiences.
- Is multi-scalar; it acts at the individual, community, and regional levels, deploying its internal as well externally-networked resources in tackling and coping to adversaries.
- Assists its members to navigate to resources as well as to negotiate for the resources they need.
- Is relatively autonomous and self-sufficient in relation to economic decision-making. It has wider economic diversities with a broader range of employment options, income, and financial services (economic capital). It is flexible, resourceful, and has the capacity to accept uncertainty and respond proactively to change.
- Is rich in community capitals including economic, social, built, political, and environmental capitals.
- Is capable of clearly identifying its barriers (i.e., pre-disaster vulnerabilities, social class, mistrust, race and ethnicity, gender) and facilitators (i.e., access to community resources, local community civic and faith-based groups, and bonding–bridging–linking social capitals).
- Is connected to external actors (including family friends, religious groups, and government) who deliver a wider supportive environment and supply goods and services when needed (linking social capital).
- Has physical infrastructures and services (built capital) that include resilient housing, transport, and power, water, and sanitation systems. It has the ability to retain, repair, and renovate them.
- Can manage its natural assets (environmental capital). It recognizes their value and has the ability to protect, enhance, and maintain them.
4.2. How Community Capitals Create Resilience to Climate Change
Conflicts of Interest
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Kais, S.M.; Islam, M.S. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1211. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121211
Kais SM, Islam MS. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(12):1211. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121211Chicago/Turabian Style
Kais, Shaikh Mohammad, and Md Saidul Islam. 2016. "Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13, no. 12: 1211. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121211