Next Article in Journal
Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal
Next Article in Special Issue
A Critical Evaluation of Waste Incineration Plants in Wuhan (China) Based on Site Selection, Environmental Influence, Public Health and Public Participation
Previous Article in Journal
Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Toxic Releases and Risk Disparity: A Spatiotemporal Model of Industrial Ecology and Social Empowerment
Open AccessArticle

Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits

School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paul B. Tchounwou and William A. Toscano
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6771-6787;
Received: 11 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health-2015)
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 5%–8% of children in the U.S. (10% of males and 4% of females). The contributions of multiple metal exposures to the childhood behavioral deficits are unclear, although particular metals have been implicated through their neurotoxicity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the body burden of Mn is positively correlated with ADHD symptoms. We also investigated the putative roles of Ca, Fe, Pb, and Hg. We collected shed molars from 266 children (138 boys and 128 girls) who lost a tooth between 11 and 13 years of age. The molars were analyzed for metals using ICP-OES. The third grade teacher of each child completed the Teacher’s Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD) to produce a score for “Total Disruptive Behavior” and subscale scores for “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant. The mean Mn, Fe, Pb and Ca concentrations found in teeth was 6.1 ± 5.7 µg/g, 22.7 ± 24.1 µg/g, 0.9 ± 1.4 µg/g, and 6.0 × 105 ± 1.6 × 105 µg/g, respectively. Hg was not detected. No significant association was found between Mn and behavioral deficits. Ca was significantly negatively associated, and Pb showed a significant positive association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, Inattention, and Oppositional/Defiant Disorders. These findings call into question the putative independent association of manganese exposure and behavioral deficits in children, when the balance of other metallic burden, particularly Ca and Pb burdens play significant roles. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; Behavior; Children; Pollution; Teeth; Metals ADHD; Behavior; Children; Pollution; Teeth; Metals
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chan, T.J.; Gutierrez, C.; Ogunseitan, O.A. Metallic Burden of Deciduous Teeth and Childhood Behavioral Deficits. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6771-6787.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop