|Active Outdoor Play||Active outdoor play, sometimes referred to as active free-play or self-directed play is defined here as, “unstructured physical activity that takes place outdoors in the child’s free time .”|
|Harm||Physical or mental damage or injury: something that causes someone or something to be hurt, broken, made less valuable or successful |
|Hazard/ Danger||A source of harm that is not obvious to the child, such that the potential for injury is hidden [32,47]. The potential for injury can be immediate or long term.|
A source of danger 
|Hyper-parenting||“‘Hyper-parenting,’ ‘invasive parenting,’ or ‘intensive parenting,’ in which a climate of ‘inflated risk’ leads parents to micromanage all aspects of their children’s lives in an effort to protect the child from adverse experiences” .|
“Parents attempt to become experts on optimal parenting strategies, and child health and development so as to ensure that their children achieve their full potential” .
“A variety of different types of highly involved parents (from ‘‘helicopter parents’’ to ‘‘tiger moms’’)” 
|Joint and Several Liability Reform||Joint and Several Liability is a legal principle that permits the injured party in a tort action to recover the entire amount of compensation due for injuries from any tortfeasor who is able to pay, regardless of the degree of that party’s negligence . Entities that are often viewed as those with the greatest amount of liability insurance are seeking reform to this principle so that the amount they pay towards an injured party directly correlates with the degree to which they were negligent.|
|Natural Environments||Environments that include natural elements such as plants, soil, and water. These may be human made (e.g., gardens, nature playgrounds and urban parks) or wild and naturally occurring (e.g., wooded areas, meadows and beaches).|
|Nature||“The phenomena of the physical world collectively, including plants, animals, the landscape, and other features and products of the earth, as opposed to humans or human creations” .|
|Physical Activity||“Any body movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in a substantial increase over resting energy expenditure” .|
|Public Entities||Municipal governments, regional governments, local economic development legal entities or authorities, sectorial representative organizations.|
|Risky Play||Thrilling and exciting play that can include the possibility of physical injury. Types of risky play include play at height, speed, near dangerous elements (e.g., water, fire), with dangerous tools, rough and tumble play (e.g., play fighting), and where there is the potential for disappearing or getting lost [44,56,57].|
|Sedentary Behaviour||“Any waking activity characterized by an energy expenditure ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents and a sitting or reclining posture” .|
|Consensus Group Participant||Sector||Home Organization|
|Mark Tremblay (Chair)||Physical activity research||HALO (www.haloresearch.ca)|
|Casey Gray (Project Manager)||Physical activity research||HALO (www.haloresearch.ca)|
|Shawna Babcock||Healthy children and communities||KidActive (www.kidactive.ca)|
|Mariana Brussoni||Risk and safety research||University of British Columbia (spph.ubc.ca/person/mariana-brussoni/)|
|Dawn Carr||Parks||Canadian Parks Council (www.parks-parcs.ca/)|
|Guylaine Chabot||Community health research||Laval University (iucpq.qc.ca/fr/recherche)|
|Louise Choquette||Early childhood development||Health Nexus (www.healthnexus.ca)|
|David Chorney||Outdoor Education||PHE Canada (www.phecanada.ca)|
|Cam Collyer||Green cities||Evergreen (www.evergreen.ca)|
|Christa Costas Bradstreet||Public health||ParticipACTION (www.participaction.com)|
|Shannon Devane *||Municipal insurance||OMEX (www.omex.org)|
|Pamela Fuselli *||Injury prevention||Parachute (www.parachutecanada.org)|
|Susan Herrington||Landscape architecture research||University of British Columbia (www.sala.ubc.ca/people/faculty/susan-herrington)|
|Katherine Janson||Health communications||ParticipACTION (www.participaction.com)|
|Ian Janssen||Physical activity research||Queen’s University (www.queensu.ca/skhs/faculty-and-staff/faculty/ian-janssen)|
|Richard Larouche||Active transportation research||HALO (www.haloresearch.ca)|
|Claire LeBlanc *||Pediatrician||Canadian Paediatric Society (www.cps.ca)|
|Will Pickett||Injury prevention research||Queen’s University (www.queensu.ca/phs/will-pickett)|
|Marlene Power||Forest schools/outdoor education||Child and Nature Alliance of Canada and Forest Schools Canada (www.childnature.ca)|
|Ellen Sandseter||Risky play research||Queen Maud University College (Norway) (dmmh.no/en)|
|Brenda Simon||Lawyer and nature play advocate||PLAYbynature (www.playbynature.org)|
|Christine Alden (Observer) **||Philanthropy||The Lawson Foundation (www.lawson.ca)|
- “Parachute very much appreciated the process and are supportive of the work of this group. After a review by our Expert Advisory Committee, unfortunately Parachute is not able to endorse the position statement as it is currently written. One particular area of concern was the way the reference to the CSA standards for playgrounds was worded”.
- “The Canadian Paediatric Society enthusiastically supports the promotion of outdoor play. However, the CPS is concerned that the statement as written does not strike an appropriate balance between encouraging children’s self-directed outdoor activity and appropriate risk reduction. We also note that the broad scope of the recommendations may hamper their implement ability. For this reason, we are unable to endorse it”.
- “OMEX was pleased to participate in the process and supports the spirit and intent of the Position Statement. We agree with Parachute's position with respect to the wording regarding CSA standards. Our role as insurers and risk managers is to promote safety and prevention of risk which conflicts with what the paper is promoting for children play in public places i.e., reducing guidelines and standards”.
3.1. Position Statement Evidence
3.3. Stakeholder Survey Findings
|Section Title||Section Clearly Stated||Agreement with Section|
|Total N||Strongly Agree||Somewhat Agree||Combined Agreement||Total N||Strongly Agree||Somewhat Agree||Combined Agreement|
|393 (22.8%)||1683 (97.7%)||1727||1388|
|298 (17.3%)||1686 (97.7%)|
- We believe the CSA Z614 Standards need to be re-examined to ensure that they consider the latest injury data and research on children’s outdoor play and the importance of risky play in children’s health and development. Because currently funding tends to be tied to meeting CSA Standards, we are not convinced that the other side of the healthy development equation (i.e., health benefits of play with an element of risk) are adequately considered in the science and injury statistics used to date. We know very little about how the denominator of “child use hours” is considered when interpreting injury statistics.
- Of the nearly 2,000 stakeholder survey respondents (a presumably informed sample) 21/1 199 comments provided even mentioned CSA (positive or negative) suggesting that to the larger sector represented by stakeholders sufficiently engaged to not only answer the survey but provide comments is generally supportive of this recommendation.
- Based on the experience of many on consensus group, the CSA guideline is frequently cited by school and recreation administrators as a barrier to the development of more nature-based play spaces. The CSA Z614 Standards’ focus on structures, equipment, and surfacing materials  results in play spaces that are more likely to consist of equipment than natural play environments with loose materials and as the Position Statement points out, this may limit children’s interest, enjoyment and participation. The research indicates that play in nature is more complex and diverse than equipment based playgrounds, and is longer in duration [130,131,165,166]. Play in nature also increases moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ) and light to moderate physical activity among children [168,169]. Play in nature fosters self-determination  and helps children with emotional and behavioural problems [170,171]. Natural play environments are also more gender neutral and offer more gender equity .
- From the consensus group deliberations, the comments received in the stakeholder survey, and the evidence supporting natural play spaces for children, there is ample support to consider alternate options to the CAN/CSA Z614 guideline. We are not recommending the elimination of the guideline, but rather revision or allowance of alternate approaches. For example, the guideline could be revised to better accommodate natural play spaces; the guidelines could allow for other guidelines to apply; or a different approach (e.g., Play Safety Forum: Managing Risk in Play Provision ) could be employed.
- Finally, a very engaged youth group submitted the following quote after in-depth discussions on the Position Statement: “From our experience as Canadian young people, this statement coincides with what we believe contributes to fun, healthy, and active child development. From our perspective, which stems from our research and personal experience, this statement accurately identifies priorities for child active outdoor play.” (Child health 2.0 Youth Advisory Board and Child health 2.0 Research Team). While it could be argued that this group is not intimately familiar with CSA guidelines, their resounding support provides a further layer of reassurance that the core intent of the Position Statement is aligned with what youth want.
- Future research should further compare the benefits and harms between active play in natural environments and other outdoor environments, as current evidence is mixed. For instance, Coe et al.  found that children (aged 3–5 years) were more active in natural environments, while another study indicated that both natural and traditional playgrounds interventions can increase the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but the more traditional playground interventions were more effective at increasing physical activity in children (aged 8–9 years).
- Future research should also evaluate promising approaches to risk reframing, especially regarding the perceptions that society has on the role of women who are responsible for the care of children. Despite societal changes, mothers tend to remain responsible for the care of children and the accompanying risk management. This responsibility felt by mothers, influences their children’s outdoor play .
- Research that concurrently considers the benefits and harms of active outdoor play is required, including exploring age and gender-related differences. Research tends to study the benefits and harms in isolation rather than looking at the overall health and well-being of the child.
- Further research that investigates if engagement in active outdoor play and risky play during the childhood years offers some protection against unintentional injuries during the adolescent and adult years is required. For example, what risk management skills are gained by these experiences and how do they influence the individual’s ability to navigate risks in different environments and circumstances both short- and long-term?
- Further research is needed to assess the influence of active outdoor play and risky play on children’s risk management. A 14-week risky play intervention that showed improved reaction time in detecting risk  provides emerging evidence. Additional research should explore the influence on executive functioning and on real-world risk decision-making.
- Injury surveillance that includes measures of exposure would provide a more accurate sense of the likelihood of serious injury while engaged in active outdoor play. Nauta et al.’s  systematic review indicated lower injury rates for unstructured play, compared to sports and active transportation, when the magnitude of exposure was considered. Consistency in measurement strategies and definitions of serious injury would also improve estimates.
- Additional research on the barriers and enablers for parents, teachers, care-providers and policy-makers to promote and facilitate active outdoor play that is required to inform and improve future interventions.
- More evidence from stronger research designs (e.g., randomized controlled trials) with valid and reliable measures is needed.
Supplementary FilesSupplementary File 1Supplementary File 1
Conflicts of Interest
- World Health Organization. Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2013–2020; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations General Assembly. Political Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases. Available online: http://www.who.int/nmh/events/un_ncd_summit2011/political_declaration_en.pdf (accessed on 21 April 2015).
- Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.
- Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: How Do We Measure Up? Koplan, J.P.; Liverman, C.T.; Kraak, V.I.; Wisham, S.L. (Eds.) Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2007.
- Kohl, H.W.; Craig, C.L.; Lambert, E.V.; Inoue, S.; Alkandari, J.R.; Leetongin, G.; Kahlmeier, S.; for the Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. The pandemic of physical inactivity: Global action for public health. Lancet 2012, 380, 294–305. [Google Scholar]
- Ng, M.; Fleming, T.; Robinson, M.; Thomson, B.; Graetz, N.; Margono, C.; Mullany, E.C.; Biryukov, S.; Abbafati, C.; Abera, S.F.; et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 2014, 384, 766–781. [Google Scholar]
- Hallal, P.C.; Andersen, L.B.; Bull, F.C.; Guthold, R.; Haskell, W.; Ekelund, U.; for the Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. Global physical activity levels: Surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet 2012, 380, 230–240. [Google Scholar]
- Tremblay, M.S.; Gray, C.E.; Akinroye, K.; Harrington, D.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.; Lambert, E.V.; Liukkonen, J.; Maddison, R.; Ocansey, R.T.; Onywera, V.O.; et al. Physical activity of children: A global matrix of grades comparing 15 countries related to the physical activity of children. J. Phys. Act. Health 2014, 11, 113–125. [Google Scholar]
- Janz, K.F.; Burns, T.L.; Levy, S.M. Tracking of activity and sedentary behaviors in childhood: The Iowa bone development study. Amer. J. Prev. Med. 2005, 29, 171–178. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Biddle, S.J.H.; Pearson, N.; Ross, G.; Braithwaite, R. Tracking of sedentary behaviours of young people: A systematic review. Prev. Med. 2010, 51, 345–351. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Tremblay, M.S.; Onywera, V.; Adamo, K.B. A child’s right to healthy active living—Building capacity in Sub-Saharan Africa to curb the impending physical activity transition: The KIDS-CAN Research Alliance. In 20th Anniversary of the Convention on the Rights of the Child; Bennett, S., Pare, M., Eds.; University of Ottawa Press: Ottawa, Canada, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Director-General Announces New Initiative to End Childhood Obesity; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014.
- Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity—About the Work of the Commission; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014.
- Siddiqi, A.; Irwin, L.G.; Hertzman, C. Evidence Report for the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health; Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2007; p. 15. [Google Scholar]
- Bassett, D.R.; John, D.; Conger, S.A.; Fitzhugh, E.C.; Coe, D.P. Trends in physical activity and sedentary behaviors of U.S. youth. J. Phys. Act. Health 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Veitch, J.; Bagley, S.; Ball, K.; Salmon, J. Where do children usually play? A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions of influences on children’s active free-play. Health Place 2006, 12, 383–393. [Google Scholar]
- Valentine, G.; McKendrck, J. Children’s outdoor play: Exploring parental concerns about children’s safety and the changing nature of childhood. Geoforum 1997, 28, 219–235. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Active Healthy Kids Canada. Is Active Play Extinct? Report Card on the Physical Activity of Children and Youth; Active Healthy Kids Canada: Toronto, Canada, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Hofferth, S.L.; Sandberg, J.F. Changes in American children’s use of time, 1981–1997. In Children at the Millennium: Where have We Come from, Where are We Going? Owens, T., Hofferth, S.L., Eds.; Elsevier Science: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001; pp. 193–229. [Google Scholar]
- Hofferth, S.L.; Sandberg, J.F. How American children spend their time. J. Marriage Fam. 2001, 63, 295–308. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hofferth, S.L. Changes in American children’s time—1997 to 2003. Electron. Int. J. Time Use Res. 2009, 6, 26–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Skar, M.; Krogh, E. Changes in children’s nature-based experiences near home: From spontaneous play to adult-controlled planned and organised activities. Child. Geogr. 2009, 7, 339–354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rideout, V.J.; Foehr, U.G.; Roberts, D.F. GENERATION M2 Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds; A Kaiser Family Foundation Study. Kaiser Family Foundation: Menlo Park, CA, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Social Determinants of Health and Well-being among Young People. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Study: International Report from the 2009/2010 Survey (Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. 6); Currie, C.; Zanotti, C.; Morgan, A.; Currie, D.; de Looze, M.; Roberts, C.; Samdal, O.; Smith, O.R.F.; Barnekow, V. (Eds.) WHO Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012.
- Colley, R.C.; Garriguet, D.; Janssen, I.; Craig, C.L.; Clarke, J.; Tremblay, M.S. Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian health measures survey. Health Rep. 2011, 22, 15–24. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Larson, L.R.; Green, G.T.; Cordell, H.K. Children’s time outdoors: Results and implications of the national kids survey. J. Park Recreat. Adm. 2011, 29, 1–20. [Google Scholar]
- Carver, A.; Timperio, A.; Crawford, D. Playing it safe: The influence of neighbourhood safety on children’s physical activity. A review. Health Place 2008, 14, 217–227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Clements, R. An investigation of the status of outdoor play. Contemp. Issues Early Child. 2004, 5, 68–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rivara, F. Counterpoint: Minor injuries may not be all that minor. Inj. Prev. 2011, 17, 149–150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Pless, I.B. On preventing all injuries. Inj. Prev. 2012, 18, 285–286. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Molcho, M.; Pickett, W. Some thoughts about “acceptable” and “non-acceptable” childhood injuries. Inj. Prev. 2011, 17, 147–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Brussoni, M.; Olsen, L. L.; Pike, I.; Sleet, D. Risky play and children’s safety: Balancing priorities for optimal child development. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 3134–3138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Fuselli, P.; Yanchar, N.L. Preventing playground injuries. Paediatr. Child Health 2012, 17, 328–330. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Wyver, S.; Tranter, P.; Naughton, G.; Little, H.; Sandseter, E.B.H.; Bundy, A. Ten ways to restrict children’s freedom to play: The problem of surplus safety. Contemp. Issues Early Child. 2010, 11, 263–277. [Google Scholar]
- Brussoni, M.; Brunelle, S.; Pike, I.; Sandseter, E.B.H.; Herrington, S.; Turner, H.; Belair, S.; Logan, L.; Fuselli, P.; Ball, D.J. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion? Inj. Prev. 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Play Safety Forum. Managing Risk in Play Provision: A Position Statement; National Children’s Bureau: London, UK, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Ungar, M. Too Safe for Their Own Good; McClelland & Stewart Publishers: Toronto, Canada, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Dombrowski, S.C.; LeMasney, J.W.; Ahia, C.E.; Dickson, S.A. Protecting children from online sexual predators: Technological, psychoeducational, and legal considerations. Prof. Psychol. Res. Proc. 2004, 3, 65–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Browne, K.D.; Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: A public-health approach. Lancet 2005, 365, 702–710. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Borghese, M.M.; Tremblay, M.S.; Leduc, G.; Boyer, C.; Bélanger, P.; LeBlanc, A.G.; Francis, C.; Chaput, J.P. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2014, 39, 937–943. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K. Indoor air pollution: A public health perspective. Science 1983, 221, 9–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Jones, A.P. Asthma and domestic air quality. Soc. Sci. Med. 1991, 47, 755–764. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gray, C.; Gibbons, R.; Larouche, R.; Hansen Sandseter, E.B.; Bienenstock, A.; Brussoni, M.; Chabot, G.; Herrington, S.; Janssen, I.; Pickett, W.; et al. What is the relationship between outdoor time and physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and physical fitness in children? A systematic review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6455–6474. [Google Scholar]
- Sandseter, E.B.H.; Kennair, L.E.O. Children’s risky play from an evolutionary perspective: The anti-phobic effects of thrilling experiences. Evol. Psychol. 2011, 9, 257–284. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Engelen, L.; Bundy, A.C.; Naughton, G.; Simpson, J.M.; Bauman, A.; Ragen, J.; Baur, L.; Wyver, S.; Tranter, P.; Niehues, A.; et al. Increasing physical activity in young primary school children—It’s child’s play: A cluster randomised controlled trial. Prev. Med. 2013, 56, 319–325. [Google Scholar]
- Brussoni, M.; Gibbons, R.; Gray, C.; Ishikawa, T.; Sandseter, E.B.H.; Bienenstock, A.; Chabot, G.; Fuselli, P.; Herrington, S.; Janssen, I.; et al. What is the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children? A systematic review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6423–6454. [Google Scholar]
- Wallach, F. Playground safety: What did we do wrong? Park Recreat. 1992, 27, 52–57. [Google Scholar]
- Hoffman, D.M. Risky investments: Parenting and the production of the resilient child. Health Risk Soc. 2010, 12, 385–394. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Harm Definition. Available online www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/harm (accessed on 2 April 2015).
- Hazard Definition. Available online www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hazard (accessed on 2 April 2015).
- Einboden, R.; Rudge, T.; Varcoe, C. Producing children in the 21st century: A critical discourse analysis of the science and techniques of monitoring early child development. Health 2013, 17, 549–566. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ashton-James, C.E.; Kushley, K.; Dunn, E.W. Parents reap what they sow: Child-centrism and parental well-being. Soc. Psychol. Personal. Sci. 2013, 4, 635–642. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carvell, D.; Currie, J.; MacLeod, W.B. Accidental death and the rule of joint and several liability. RAND J. Econ. 2012, 43, 51–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Nature Definition. Available online: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/nature (accessed on 2 April 2015).
- Bouchard, C.; Shephard, R.J. Physical activity, fitness and health: The model and key concepts. In Physical Activity, Fitness and Health: International Proceedings and Consensus Statement; Bouchard, C., Shephard, R.J., Stephens, T., Eds.; Human Kinetics Publishers: Champaign, IL, USA, 1994; pp. 77–88. [Google Scholar]
- Sandseter, E.B.H. Categorising risky play—How can we identify risk-taking in children’s play? Eur. Early Child. Educ. Res. J. 2007, 15, 237–252. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sandseter, E.B.H. Characteristics of risky play. J. Adventure Educ. Outdoor Learn. 2009, 9, 3–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sedentary Behavior Research Network. Standardized use of the terms “sedentary” and “sedentary behaviors”. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab 2012, 37, 540–542. [Google Scholar]
- Moher, D.; Liberati, A.; Tetzlaff, J.; Altman, D.G. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 2009, 62, 1006–1012. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Tremblay, M.S.; Barnes, J.D.; Cowie Bonne, J. Impact of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card: A 10-year analysis. J. Phys. Act. Health 2014, 11, 3–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Cooper, A.R.; Page, A.S.; Wheeler, B.W.; Hillsdon, M.; Griew, P.; Jago, R. Patterns of GPS measured time outdoors after school and objective physical activity in English children: The PEACH project. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Dunton, G.F.; Liao, Y.; Intille, S.; Wolch, J.; Pentz, M.A. Physical and social contextual influences on children’s leisure-time physical activity: An ecological momentary assessment study. J. Phys. Act. Health 2011, 8, 103–108. [Google Scholar]
- Klinker, C.D.; Schipperijn, J.; Kerr, J.; Ersboll, A.K.; Troelsen, J. Context-specific outdoor time and physical activity among school-children across gender and age: Using accelerometers and GPS to advance methods. Front. Public Health 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Raustorp, A.; Pagels, P.; Boldemann, C.; Cosco, N.; Soderstrom, M.; Martensson, F. Accelerometer measured level of physical activity indoors and outdoors during preschool time in Sweden and the United States. J. Phys. Act. Health 2012, 9, 801–808. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Smith, J.; Nichols, D.; Biggerstaff, K.; DiMarco, N. Assessment of physical activity levels of 3rd and 4th grade children using pedometers during physical education class. J. Res. 2009, 4, 73–79. [Google Scholar]
- Skala, K.A.; Springer, A.E.; Sharma, S.V.; Hoelscher, D.M.; Kelder, S.H. Environmental characteristics and student physical activity in PE class: Findings from two large urban areas of Texas. J. Phys. Act. Health 2012, 9, 481–491. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Vanderloo, L.M.; Tucker, P.; Johnson, A.M.; Holmes, J.D. Physical activity among preschoolers during indoor and outdoor childcare play periods. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2013, 38, 1173–1175. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wheeler, B.W.; Cooper, A.R.; Page, A.S.; Jago, R. Greenspace and children’s physical activity: A GPS/GIS analysis of the PEACH project. Prev. Med. 2010, 51, 148–152. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Andersen, L.B.; Harro, M.; Sardinha, L.B.; Froberg, K.; Ekelund, U.; Brage, S.; Anderssen, S.A. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: A cross-sectional study (the European youth heart study). Lancet 2006, 368, 299–304. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ekelund, U.; Luan, J.; Sherar, L.B.; Esliger, D.W.; Griew, P.; Cooper, A.; for the International Children’s Accelerometry Database (ICAD) Collaborators. Moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. JAMA 2012, 307, 704–712. [Google Scholar]
- Janssen, I.; LeBlanc, A.G. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Strong, W.B.; Malina, R.M.; Blimkie, C.J.R.; Daniels, S.R.; Dishman, R.K.; Gutin, B; Hergenroeder, A.C.; Must, A.; Nixon, P.A.; Pivarnik, J.M.; et al. Evidence-based physical activity for school-aged youth. J. Pediatr. 2005, 146, 732–737. [Google Scholar]
- Duncan, M.J.; Clarke, N.D.; Birch, S.L.; Tallis, J.; Hankey, J.; Bryant, E.; Eyre, E.L.J. The effect of green exercise on blood pressure, heart rate and mood state in primary school children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3678–3688. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kemper, H.C.G.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.; Post, G.B.; Roos, J.C.; Lips, P. A fifteen-year longitudinal study in young adults on the relation of physical activity and fitness with the development of the bone mass: The Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study. Bone 2000, 27, 847–853. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hind, K.; Burrows, M. Weight-bearing exercise and bone mineral accrual in children and adolescents: A review of controlled trials. Bone 2007, 40, 14–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Tremblay, M.S.; LeBlanc, A.G.; Kho, M.E.; Saunders, T.J.; Larouche, R.; Colley, R.C.; Goldfield, G.; Connor Gorber, S. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2011. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Larouche, R. The environmental and population health benefits of active transport: A review. In Greenhouse Gases—Emissions, Measurement and Management; Liu, G., Ed.; InTech: Rijeka, Croatia, 2012; pp. 413–440. [Google Scholar]
- Friedman, M.S.; Powell, K.E.; Hutwagner, L.; Graham, L.M.; Teague, W.G. Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 summer Olympic games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. JAMA 2001, 285, 897–905. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Timperio, A.; Crawford, D.; Telford, A.; Salmon, J. Perceptions of the local neighborhood and walking and cycling among children. Prev. Med. 2004, 38, 39–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Valentine, G. “My Son’s a Bit Dizzy”, “My wife’s a Bit Soft”: Gender, children, and cultures of parenting. Gender Place Cult. 1997, 4, 37–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Valentine, G. “Oh yes I can”, “Oh no you can’t”: Children and parents’ understandings of kids’ competence to negotiate public space safely. Antipode 1997, 29, 65–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dalley, M.L.; Ruscoe, J. The abduction of children by strangers in Canada: Nature and scope. Royal Canadian Mounted Police: Ottawa, Canada, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Canadian Institute for Health Information. National Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set, 1994–1995 to 2012–2013; Canadian Institute for Health Information: Ottawa, Canada; Available online: http://www.cihi.ca/CIHI-ext-portal/internet/en/document/types+of+care/specialized+services/trauma+and+injuries/ntr_metadata (accessed on 25 April 2015).
- Rubie-Davies, C.M.; Townsend, M.A.R. Fractures in New Zealand elementary school settings. J. Sch. Health 2007, 77, 36–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Nauta, J.; Martin-Diener, E.; Martin, B.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E. Injury risk during different physical activity behaviours in children: A systematic review with bias assessment. Sport Med. 2015, 45, 327–336. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Public Health Agency of Canada. Child and Youth Injury in Review, 2009 Edition: Spotlight on Consumer Product Safety; Public Health Agency of Canada: Ottawa, Canada, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Belechri, M.; Petridou, E.; Kedikoglou, S.; Trichopoulos, D. Sports injuries among children in six European union countries. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2001, 17, 1005–1012. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sahai, V.S.; Ward, M.S.; Zmijowskyj, T.; Rowe, B.H. Quantifying the iceberg effect for injury: Using comprehensive community health data. Can. J. Public Health 2005, 96, 328–332. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Howard, A.W.; Macarthur, C.; Rothman, L.; Willan, A.; Macpherson, A.K. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: A cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces. PLoS Med. 2009. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Public Health Agency of Canada. Injury in Review, 2012 Edition: Spotlight on Road and Transport Safety; Public Health Agency of Canada: Ottawa, Canada, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Rothman, L.; Macarthur, C.; To, T.; Buliung, R.; Howard, A. Motor vehicle-pedestrian collisions and walking to school: The role of the built environment. Pediatrics 2014, 133, 776–784. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- DiMaggio, C.; Li, G. Effectiveness of a safe routes to school program in preventing school-aged pedestrian injury. Pediatrics 2013, 131, 290–296. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Dombrowski, S.C.; LeMasney, J.W.; Ahia, C.E.; Dickson, S.A. Protecting children from online sexual predators: Technological, psychoeducational, and legal considerations. Prof. Psychol. Res. Proc. 2004, 35, 65–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mazowita, B.; Vézina, M. Police-Reported Cybercrime in Canada 2012; Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Litwiller, B.J.; Brausch, A.M. Cyber bullying and physical bullying in adolescent suicide: The role of violent behavior and substance use. J. Youth Adolesc. 2013, 42, 675–684. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Browne, K.D.; Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: A public-health approach. Lancet 2005, 365, 702–710. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Region of Peel. Clean Air Peel. Available on-line at www.peelregion.ca/health/cleanairpeel/smog-health.htm (accessed on 25 April 2015).
- DellaValle, C.T.; Triche, E.W.; Leaderer, B.P.; Bell, M.L. Effects of ambient pollen concentrations on frequency and severity of asthma symptoms among asthmatic children. Epidemiol. 2012, 23, 55–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- World Health Organization. Burden of Disease from Household air Pollution for 2012; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Lee, I.-M.; Shiroma, E.J.; Lobelo, F.; Puska, P.; Blair, S.N.; Katzmarzyk, P.T.; for the Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. Effect of physical activity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet 2012, 380, 219–229. [Google Scholar]
- Pahkala, K.; Heinonen, O.J.; Simell, O.; Viikari, J.S.A.; Rönnemaa, T.; Niinikoski, H.; Raitakari, O.T. Association of physical activity with vascular endothelial function and intima-media thickness. Circulation 2011, 124, 1956–1963. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Raitakari, O.T.; Porkka, K.V.K.; Taimela, S.; Telama, R.; Rasanen, L.; Viikari, J.S.A. Effects of persistent physical activity and inactivity on coronary risk factors in children and young adults: The cardiovascular risk in young Finns study. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 1994, 140, 195–205. [Google Scholar]
- Tuomiletho, J.; Lindström, J.; Ericksson, J.G.; Valle, T.T.; Hämäläinen, H.; Ilanne-Parikka, P.; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S.; Laakso, M.; Louheranta, A.; Merja Rastas, M.S.; et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N. Engl. J. Med. 2001, 344, 1343–1350. [Google Scholar]
- Knowler, W.C.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Fowler, S.E.; Hamman, R.F.; Lachin, J.M.; Walker, E.A.; Nathan, D.M. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002, 346, 393–403. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Mammen, G.; Faulkner, G. Physical activity and the prevention of depression: A systematic review of prospective studies. Amer. J. Prev. Med. 2013, 45, 649–657. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Paffenbarger, R.S.; Hyde, R.T.; Wing, A.L.; Hsieh, C. Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. N. Engl. J. Med. 1986, 314, 605–623. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Paffenbarger, R.S.; Hyde, R.T.; Wing, A.L.; Lee, I.M.; Jung, D.L.; Kampert, J.B. The association of changes in physical activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men. N. Engl. J. Med. 1993, 328, 538–545. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Washington, DC, USA, 2008.
- Biswas, A.; Oh, P.I.; Faulkner, G.E.; Bajaj, R.R.; Silver, M.A.; Mitchell, M.S.; Alter, D.A. Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann. Intern. Med. 2015, 162, 123–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Janssen, I. Hyper-parenting is negatively associated with physical activity among 7–12 year olds. Prev. Med. 2015, 73, 55–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ginsburg, K.R.; the Committee on Communications and the Committee of Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bonds. Pediatrics 2007, 119, 182–191. [Google Scholar]
- Schiffrin, H.H.; Liss, M.; Miles-McLean, H.; Geary, K.A.; Erchull, M.J.; Tashner, T. Helping or hovering? The effects of helicopter parenting on college students’ well-being. J. Child. Fam. Stud. 2014, 23, 548–557. [Google Scholar]
- LeMoyne, T.; Buchanan, T. Does “hovering” matter? Helicopter parenting and its effect on well-being. Sociol. Spectrum 2011, 31, 399–418. [Google Scholar]
- Gester, S. Urban children’s access to their neighborhoods: Changes over three generations. Environ. Behav. 1991, 23, 70–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hillman, M.; Adams, J.; Whitelegg, J. One False Move: A Study of Children’s Independent Mobility; PSI Publishing: London, UK, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- O’Brien, M.; Jones, D.; Sloan, D.; Rustin, M. Children’s independent spatial mobility in the urban public realm. Childhood 2001, 7, 257–277. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shaw, B.; Watson, B.; Frauendienst, B.; Redecker, A.; Jones, T.; Hillman, M. Children’s Independent Mobility: A Comparative Study in England and Germany (1971–2010); Policy Studies Institute: London, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Kirby, J.; Levin, K.; Inchley, J. Parental and peer influences on physical activity among Scottish adolescents: A longitudinal study. J. Phys. Act. Health 2011, 8, 785–793. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- Page, A.; Cooper, A.; Griew, P. Independent mobility in relation to weekday and weekend physical activity in children aged 10–11 years: The PEACH project. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2009. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Page, A.S.; Cooper, A.R.; Griew, P.; Jago, R. Independent mobility, perceptions of the built environment and children’s participation in play, active travel and structured exercise and sport: The PEACH Project. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Stone, M.R.; Faulkner, G.E.; Mitra, R.; Buliung, R.N. The freedom to explore: Examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Schoeppe, S.; Duncan, M.J.; Badland, H.M.; Oliver, M.; Browne, M. Associations between children’s independent mobility and physical activity. BMC Public Health 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Mitra, R.; Faulkner, G.E.J.; Buliung, R.N.; Stone, M.R. Do parental perceptions of the neighbourhood environment influence children’s independent mobility? Evidence from Toronto, Canada. Urban Stud. 2014, 51, 3401–3419. [Google Scholar]
- Floyd, M.F.; Bocarro, J.N.; Smith, W.R.; Baran, P.K.; Moore, R.C.; Cosco, N.G.; Edwards, M.B.; Suau, L.J.; Fang, K. Park-based physical activity among children and adolescents. Amer. J. Prev. Med. 2011, 41, 258–265. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Jones, O. True geography quickly forgotten, giving away to an adult-imagined universe. Approaching the otherness of childhood. Child. Geogr. 2008, 6, 195–212. [Google Scholar]
- Aasen, W.; Grindheim, L.T.; Waters, J. The outdoor environment as a site for children’s participation, meaning-making and democratic learning: Examples from Norwegian kindergartens. Education 2009, 37, 5–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dyment, J.; O’Connell, T.S. The impact of playground design on play choices and behaviors of pre-school children. Child. Geogr. 2013, 11, 263–280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mahidin, A.M.M.; Maulan, S. Understanding children preferences of natural environment as a start for environmental sustainability. Procedia—Soc. Behav. Sci. 2012, 38, 324–333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fjortoft, I.; Sageie, J. The natural environment as a playground for children: Landscape description and analyses of a natural playscape. Lands. Urban Plan. 2000, 48, 83–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Luchs, A.; Fikus, M. A comparative study of active play on differently designed playgrounds. J. Adventure Educ. Outdoor Learn. 2013, 13, 206–222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cloward Drown, K.K.; Christensen, K.M. Dramatic play affordances of natural and manufactured outdoor settings for preschool-aged children. Child. Youth Environ. 2014, 24, 53–77. [Google Scholar]
- Dowdell, K.; Gray, T.; Malone, K. Nature and its influence on children’s outdoor play. Aust. J. Outdoor Ed. 2011, 15, 24–35. [Google Scholar]
- Reed, K.; Wood, C.; Barton, J.; Pretty, J.N.; Cohen, D.; Sandercock, G.R.H. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children. PLoS ONE 2013. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Herrington, S.; Studtmann, K. Landscape interventions: New directions for the design of children’s outdoor play environments. Landsc. Urban Plan. 1998, 42, 191–205. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Herrington, S. The received view of play and the subculture of infants. Landsc. J. 1997, 16, 149–160. [Google Scholar]
- Hüttenmoser, M. Children and their living surroundings: Empirical investigation into the significance of living surroundings for the everyday life and development of children. Child. Environ. 1995, 12, 403–413. [Google Scholar]
- Prezza, M.; Pilloni, S.; Morabito, C.; Sersante, C.; Alparone, F.R.; Giuliani, M.V. The influence of psychosocial and environmental factors on children’s independent mobility and relationship to peer frequentation. J. Community Appl. Soc. Psychol. 2001, 11, 435–450. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Becker, D.R.; McClelland, M.M.; Loprinzi, P.; Trost, S.G. Physical activity, self-regulation, and early academic achievement in preschool children. Early Educ. Dev. 2014, 25, 56–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kahn, P.; Kellert, S. Children and Nature: Psychological, Socio-cultural, and Evolutionary Investigations; MIT Press: Boston, MA, USA, 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Bingley, A.; Milligan, C. Climbing Trees and Building Dens: Mental Health and Well-being in Young Adults and the Long-term Experience of Childhood Play Experience; Institute for Health Research, Lancaster University,: London, UK, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Greffrath, G.; Meyer, C.; Strydom, H.; Ellis, S. Centre-based and expedition-based (wilderness) adventure experiential learning personal effectiveness: An explorative enquiry. Leisure Stud. 2011, 30, 345–364. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Korpela, K.; Kytta, M.; Hartig, T. Restorative experience, self-regulation, and children’s special place preferences. J. Environ. Psychol. 2002, 22, 387–398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sandseter, E.B.H. Risky play and risk management in Norwegian preschools—A qualitative observational study. Saf. Sci. Monit. 2009, 13, 1–12. [Google Scholar]
- Mikkelsen, M.R.; Christensen, P. Is children’s independent mobility really independent? A study of children’s mobility combining ethnography and GPS/mobile phone technologies. Mobilities 2009, 4, 37–58. [Google Scholar]
- Lavrysen, A.; Bertrands, E.; Leyssen, L.; Smets, L.; Vanderspikken, A.; De Graef, P. Risky-play at school. Facilitating risk percetpion and competence in young children. Eur. Early Child. Educ. 2015, in press. [Google Scholar]
- Gray, P. The decline of play and the rise of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Amer. J. Play 2011, 3, 443–463. [Google Scholar]
- Twenge, J.M.; Gentile, B.; Dewall, C.N.; Ma, D.; Lacefield, K.; Shurtz, D.R. Birth cohort increases in psychopathology among young Americans, 1938–2007: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the MMPI. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 2010, 30, 145–154. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Twenge, J.M. The age of anxiety? Birth cohort change in anxiety and neuroticism, 1952–1993. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 2000, 79, 1007–1021. [Google Scholar]
- Kochanowski, L.; Carr, V. Nature playscapes as contexts for fostering self-determination. Child. Youth Environ. 2014, 24, 146–167. [Google Scholar]
- McArdle, K.; Harrison, T.; Harrison, D. Does a nurturing approach that uses an outdoor play environment build resilience in children from a challenging background? J. Adventure Ed. Outdoor Learn. 2013, 13, 238–254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Canning, N. “Where’s the bear? Over there!”—creative thinking and imagination in den making. Early Child Dev. Care 2013, 183, 1042–1053. [Google Scholar]
- Malone, K.; Rudner, J. Global perspectives on children’s independent mobility: A socio-cultural comparison and theoretical discussion of children’s lives in four countries in Asia and Africa. Glob. Stud. Child. 2011, 1, 243–259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Joshi, M.; MacClean, M.; Carter, W. Children’s journey to school: Spatial skills, knowledge and perceptions of the environment. Brit. J. Dev. Psychol. 1999, 19, 125–139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rissotto, A.; Tonucci, F. Freedom of movement and environmental knowledge in elementary school children. J. Environ. Psychol. 2002, 22, 65–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bixler, R.D.; Floyd, M.F.; Hammitt, W.E. Environmental socialization: Quantitative tests of the childhood play hypothesis. Environ. Behav. 2002, 34, 795–818. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pacilli, M.G.; Giovannelli, I.; Prezza, M.; Augimeri, M.L. Children and the public realm: Antecedents and consequences of independent mobility in a group of 11–13-year-old Italian children. Child Geogr. 2013, 11, 377–393. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bauman, A.E.; Reis, R.S.; Sallis, J.F.; Wells, J.C.; Loos, R.J.F.; Martin, B.W.; for the Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. Correlates of physical activity: Why are some people physically active and others not? Lancet 2012, 380, 258–271. [Google Scholar]
- Aarts, M.-J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Oers, H.A.M.; van de Goor, I.A.M.; Schuit, A.J. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children: A large-scale cross-sectional study. Amer. J. Prev. Med. 2010, 39, 212–219. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lee, H.; Tamminen, K.A.; Clark, A.M.; Slater, L.; Spence, J.C.; Holt, N.L. A meta-study of qualitative research examining determinants of children’s independent active play. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Giles-Corti, B.; Timperio, A.; Bull, F.; Pikora, T. Understanding physical activity environmental correlates: Increased specificity for ecological models. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 2005, 33, 175–181. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- McLeroy, K.R.; Bibeau, D.; Steckler, A.; Glanz, K. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Ed. Behav. 1988, 15, 351–377. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sallis, J.F.; Cervero, R.B.; Ascher, W.; Hendersen, K.A.; Kraft, M.J.; Kerr, J. An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Ann. Rev. Public Health 2006, 27, 297–322. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- World Health Organization. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion; Public Health Agency of Canada: Ottawa, Canada, 1986. [Google Scholar]
- CSA Group. Available online: http://shop.csa.ca/en/canada/injury-prevention/cancsa-z614-14/invt/27019532014 (accessed on 2 April 2015).
- Samborski, S. Biodiverse or barren school grounds: Their effects on children. Child. Youth Environ. 2010, 20, 67–115. [Google Scholar]
- Sargisson, R.J.; McLean, I.G. Children’s use of nature in New Zealand playgrounds. Child. Youth Environ. 2012, 22, 144–163. [Google Scholar]
- Coe, D.P.; Flynn, J.I.; Wolff, D.L.; Scott, S.N.; Durham, S. Children’s physical activity levels and utilization of a traditional versus natural playground. Child. Youth Environ. 2014, 24, 1–15. [Google Scholar]
- Dyment, J.E.; Bell, A.C. Grounds for movement: Green school grounds as sites for promoting physical activity. Health Educ. Res. 2008, 23, 952–962. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Dyment, J.; Bell, A.; Lucas, A. The relationship between school ground design and intensity of physical activity. Child. Geogr. 2009, 7, 261–276. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Maller, C.; Townsend, M. Children’s mental health and wellbeing and hands-on contact with nature. Int. J. Learn. 2006, 12, 359–372. [Google Scholar]
- Roe, J.; Aspinall, P. The emotional affordances of forest settings: An investigation in boys with extreme behavioural problems. Lands. Res. 2011, 36, 535–552. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Änggård, E. Children’s gendered and non-gendered play in natural spaces. Child. Youth Environ. 2011, 21, 5–33. [Google Scholar]
- Ball, D.; Gill, T.; Spiegal, B. Play Safety Forum: Managing Risk in Play Provision Implementation Guide; Play England, National Children’s Bureau: London, UK, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Convention on the Rights of the Child; United Nations: Geneva, Switzerland, 1989. [Google Scholar]
- Dietz, W.H. The obesity epidemic in young children. BMJ. 2001, 322, 313–314. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Burdette, H.L.; Whitaker, R.C. Resurrecting free play in young children: Looking beyond fitness and fatness to attention, affiliation, and affect. JAMA Pediatr. 2005, 159, 46–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ball, D.J.; Brunelle, S.; Pike, I.; Sandseter, E.B.H.; Herrington, S.; Turner, H.; Belair, S.; Logan, L.; Fuselli, P.; Ball, D.J. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion. Inj. Prev 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Groof, S. And my mama said: The (relative) parental influence on fear of crime among adolescent girls and boys. Youth Soc. 2007, 39, 267–293. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bundy, A.C.; Naughton, G.; Tranter, P.; Wyver, S.; Baur, L.; Schiller, W.; Bauman, A.; Engelen, L.; Ragen, J.; Luckett, T.; et al. The Sydney Playground Project: Popping the bubblewrap—Unleashing the power of play: A cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary school playground-based intervention aiming to increase children’s physical activity and social skills. BMC Public Health 2011. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alparone, F.R.; Pacilli, M.G. On children’s independent mobility: The interplay of demographic, environmental, and psychosocial factors. Child. Geogr. 2012, 10, 109–122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morrongiello, B.A.; Corbett, M.; Brison, R.J. Identifying predictors of medically-attended injuries to young children: Do child or parent behavioural attributes matter? Inj. Prev. 2009, 15, 220–225. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Carver, A.; Timperio, A.; Hesketh, K.; Crawford, D. Are children and adolescents less active if parents restrict their physical activity and active transport due to perceived risk? Soc. Sci. Med. 2010, 70, 1799–1805. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Niehues, A.N.; Bundy, A.; Broom, A.; Tranter, P.; Ragen, J.; Engelen, L. Everyday uncertainties: Reframing perceptions of risk in outdoor free play. J. Adventure Educ. Outdoor Learn. 2013, 13, 223–237. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Niehues, A.; Bundy, A.C.; Broom, A.; Tranter, P. Parents’ perception of risk and the influence on children’s everyday activities. J. Child Fam. Stud. 2013, 24, 809–820. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ungar, M. Psychologist: Stop Bubble-Wrapping Your Kids! How Overprotection Leads to Psychological Damage. Available online: http://www.alternet.org/culture/psychologist-stop-bubble-wrapping-your-kids-how-overprotection-leads-psychological-damage (accessed on 11 February 2015).
- Brussoni, M.; Olsen, L.L.; Creighton, G.; Oliffe, J.L. Heterosexual gender relations in and around childhood risk and safety. Qual. Health Res. 2013, 23, 1388–1398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lindsey, E.W.; Mize, J. Contextual differences in parent-child play: Implications for children’s gender role development. Sex Roles 2001, 44, 155–176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morrongiello, B.A.; Zdzieborski, D.; Normand, J. Understanding gender differences in children’s risk taking and injury: A comparison of mothers’ and fathers’ reactions to sons and daughters misbehaving in ways that lead to injury. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 2010, 31, 322–329. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hill, A.; Bundy, A.C. Reliability and validity of a new instrument to measure tolerance of everyday risk for children. Child. Care Health Dev. 2014, 40, 68–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Cevher-Kalburan, N. Developing pre-service teachers’ undersatnding of children’s risky play. J. Adventure Educ. Outdoor Learn. 2014, 1, 1–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sandseter, E.B.H.; Wyver, S.; Little, H. Does theory and pedagogy have an impact on provisions for outdoor learning? A comparison of approaches in Australia and Norway. J. Adventure Educ. Outdoor Learn. 2012, 12, 167–182. [Google Scholar]
- Barton, J.; Sandercock, G.; Pretty, J.; Wood, C. The effect of playground- and nature-based playtime interventions on physical activity and self-esteem in UK school children. Int. J. Environ. Health Res. 2014, 12, 1–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Allin, L.; West, A.; Curry, S. Mother and child constructions of risk in outdoor play. Leisure Stud. 2014, 33, 644–657. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).