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Open AccessReview

Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech., 1405 Perry Street, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Academic Editor: Samuel Dorevitch
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 4533-4545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120504533
Received: 12 February 2015 / Revised: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
Recently it has been estimated that the annual cost of diseases caused by the waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumonia, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is $500 million. For the period 2001–2012, the estimated cost of hospital admissions for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, the majority caused by M. avium, was almost $1 billion. These three waterborne opportunistic pathogens are normal inhabitants of drinking water—not contaminants—that share a number of key characteristics that predispose them to survival, persistence, and growth in drinking water distribution systems and premise plumbing. Herein, I list and describe these shared characteristics that include: disinfectant-resistance, biofilm-formation, growth in amoebae, growth at low organic carbon concentrations (oligotrophic), and growth under conditions of stagnation. This review is intended to increase awareness of OPPPs, identify emerging OPPPs, and challenge the drinking water industry to develop novel approaches toward their control. View Full-Text
Keywords: opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens; Legionella; Mycobacteria; Pseudomonas; biofilm formation; disinfectant-resistance opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens; Legionella; Mycobacteria; Pseudomonas; biofilm formation; disinfectant-resistance
MDPI and ACS Style

Falkinham, J.O., III. Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4533-4545. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120504533

AMA Style

Falkinham JO III. Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(5):4533-4545. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120504533

Chicago/Turabian Style

Falkinham, Joseph O., III. 2015. "Common Features of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, no. 5: 4533-4545. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120504533

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