Next Article in Journal
Bioactivities of Lipid Extracts and Complex Lipids from Seaweeds: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects
Next Article in Special Issue
The Expanded Role of Chitosan in Localized Antimicrobial Therapy
Previous Article in Journal
Seaweed Blends as a Valuable Source of Polyunsaturated and Healthy Fats for Nutritional and Food Applications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Fucoidans to Treat Inflammatory Diseases: A Review
Article

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Rhamnan Sulfate from Monostroma nitidum

1
Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA
2
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
4
Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
5
Calroy Health Sciences, LLC., Scottsdale, AZ 85260, USA
6
Departments of Biological Science and Biomedical Engineering, Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Olafur H. Fridjonsson
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120685
Received: 8 November 2021 / Revised: 19 November 2021 / Accepted: 24 November 2021 / Published: 30 November 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic is a major human health concern. The pathogen responsible for COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), invades its host through the interaction of its spike (S) protein with a host cell receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In addition to ACE2, heparan sulfate (HS) on the surface of host cells also plays a significant role as a co-receptor. Our previous studies demonstrated that sulfated glycans, such as heparin and fucoidans, show anti-COVID-19 activities. In the current study, rhamnan sulfate (RS), a polysaccharide with a rhamnose backbone from a green seaweed, Monostroma nitidum, was evaluated for binding to the S-protein from SARS-CoV-2 and inhibition of viral infectivity in vitro. The structural characteristics of RS were investigated by determining its monosaccharide composition and performing two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. RS inhibition of the interaction of heparin, a highly sulfated HS, with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (from wild type and different mutant variants) was studied using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In competitive binding studies, the IC50 of RS against the S-protein receptor binding domain (RBD) binding to immobilized heparin was 1.6 ng/mL, which is much lower than the IC50 for heparin (~750 ng/mL). RS showed stronger inhibition than heparin on the S-protein RBD or pseudoviral particles binding to immobilized heparin. Finally, in an in vitro cell-based assay, RS showed strong antiviral activities against wild type SARS-CoV-2 and the delta variant. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; rhamnan sulfate; heparin; surface plasmon resonance SARS-CoV-2; rhamnan sulfate; heparin; surface plasmon resonance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Song, Y.; He, P.; Rodrigues, A.L.; Datta, P.; Tandon, R.; Bates, J.T.; Bierdeman, M.A.; Chen, C.; Dordick, J.; Zhang, F.; Linhardt, R.J. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Rhamnan Sulfate from Monostroma nitidum. Mar. Drugs 2021, 19, 685. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120685

AMA Style

Song Y, He P, Rodrigues AL, Datta P, Tandon R, Bates JT, Bierdeman MA, Chen C, Dordick J, Zhang F, Linhardt RJ. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Rhamnan Sulfate from Monostroma nitidum. Marine Drugs. 2021; 19(12):685. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120685

Chicago/Turabian Style

Song, Yuefan, Peng He, Andre L. Rodrigues, Payel Datta, Ritesh Tandon, John T. Bates, Michael A. Bierdeman, Chen Chen, Jonathan Dordick, Fuming Zhang, and Robert J. Linhardt. 2021. "Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Rhamnan Sulfate from Monostroma nitidum" Marine Drugs 19, no. 12: 685. https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120685

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop