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Immunomodulatory Effects of a Low-Molecular Weight Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera on RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Cyclophosphamide- Induced Immunosuppression Mouse Models

1
Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
2
College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(7), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18070340
Received: 1 May 2020 / Revised: 2 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 28 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro and In Vivo Approaches to Study Potential Marine Drugs)
The water-soluble polysaccharide EP2, from Enteromorpha prolifera, belongs to the group of polysaccharides known as glucuronoxylorhamnan, which mainly contains glucuronic acid (GlcA), xylose (Xyl), and rhamnose (Rha). The aim of this study was to detect the immunomodulatory effects of EP2 on RAW 264.7 macrophages and cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced immunosuppression mouse models. The cells were treated with EP2 for different time periods (0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 h). The results showed that EP2 promoted nitric oxide production and up-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that EP2-activated iNOS, COX2, and NLRP3 inflammasomes, and the TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway played an important role. Moreover, EP2 significantly increased the body weight, spleen index, thymus index, inflammatory cell counts, and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in CYP-induced immunosuppression mouse models. These results indicate that EP2 might be a potential immunomodulatory drug and provide the scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization and evaluation of E. prolifera in future applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: polysaccharides; Enteromorpha prolifera; immunomodulation; RAW 264.7 cells; cyclophosphamide polysaccharides; Enteromorpha prolifera; immunomodulation; RAW 264.7 cells; cyclophosphamide
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Liu, Y.; Wu, X.; Jin, W.; Guo, Y. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Low-Molecular Weight Polysaccharide from Enteromorpha prolifera on RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Cyclophosphamide- Induced Immunosuppression Mouse Models. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 340.

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