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Effects of Fish Oil and Grape Seed Extract Combination on Hepatic Endogenous Antioxidants and Bioactive Lipids in Diet-Induced Early Stages of Insulin Resistance in Rats

1
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Pharmacology Unit, Functional Nutrition, Oxidation, and Cardiovascular Disease (NFOC-SALUT) Group, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/Sant Llorenç 21, E-43201 Reus, Spain
2
Institute of Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Cell Biology, Physiology & Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
4
Institute of Marine Research (IIM-CSIC), C/ Eduardo Cabello 6, E-36208 Vigo, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(6), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18060318
Received: 21 May 2020 / Revised: 9 June 2020 / Accepted: 14 June 2020 / Published: 16 June 2020
Diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramides have been suggested as early predictors of insulin resistance. This study was aimed to examine the combined effects of fish oil (FO) and grape seed extract (GSE) on hepatic endogenous antioxidants, DAG and ceramides in diet-induced early stages of insulin resistance. Thirty-five rats were fed one of the following diets: (1) a standard diet (STD group), (2) a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS group), (3) an HFHS diet enriched with FO (FO group), (4) an HFHS diet enriched with GSE (GSE group) or (5) an HFHS diet enriched with FO and GSE (FO + GSE group). In the liver, endogenous antioxidants were measured using spectrophotometric and fluorometric techniques, and non-targeted lipidomics was conducted for the assessment of DAG and ceramides. After 24 weeks, the FO + GSE group showed increased glutathione peroxidase activity, as well as monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing DAG, and long-chain fatty acid-containing ceramides abundances compared to the STD group. The FO and GSE combination induced similar activation of the antioxidant system and bioactive lipid accumulation in the liver than the HFHS diet without supplementation. In addition, the FO and GSE combination increased the abundances of polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing DAG in the liver. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3; proanthocyanidins; polyphenols; antioxidants; diacylglycerol; ceramide omega-3; proanthocyanidins; polyphenols; antioxidants; diacylglycerol; ceramide
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Taltavull, N.; Miralles-Pérez, B.; Nogués, M.R.; Ramos-Romero, S.; Méndez, L.; Medina, I.; Torres, J.L.; Romeu, M. Effects of Fish Oil and Grape Seed Extract Combination on Hepatic Endogenous Antioxidants and Bioactive Lipids in Diet-Induced Early Stages of Insulin Resistance in Rats. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 318.

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