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Open AccessArticle

Pre-Treatment with Laminarin Protects Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons and Attenuates Reactive Gliosis Following Transient Forebrain Ischemia in Gerbils

1
Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Gangwon, Korea
2
Department of Biomedical Science, Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Gangwon, Korea
3
Leefarm Co., Ltd., Hongcheon 25117, Gangwon, Korea
4
Department of Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Gyeongbuk, Korea
5
Department of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon 24289, Gangwon, Korea
6
Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Gangwon, Korea
7
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Gangwon, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-First: Tae-Kyeong Lee and Ji Hyeon Ahn contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010052
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 12 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Polysaccharides)
Transient brain ischemia triggers selective neuronal death/loss, especially in vulnerable regions of the brain including the hippocampus. Laminarin, a polysaccharide originating from brown seaweed, has various pharmaceutical properties including an antioxidant function. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the protective effects of laminarin against ischemic injury induced by ischemic insults. In this study, we histopathologically investigated the neuroprotective effects of laminarin in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) field of the hippocampus, which is very vulnerable to ischemia-reperfusion injury, following transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) for five minutes in gerbils. The neuroprotective effect was examined by cresyl violet staining, Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining and immunohistochemistry for neuronal-specific nuclear protein. Additionally, to study gliosis (glial changes), we performed immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein to examine astrocytes, and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 to examine microglia. Furthermore, we examined alterations in pro-inflammatory M1 microglia by using double immunofluorescence. Pretreatment with 10 mg/kg laminarin failed to protect neurons in the hippocampal CA1 field and did not attenuate reactive gliosis in the field following TFI. In contrast, pretreatment with 50 or 100 mg/kg laminarin protected neurons, attenuated reactive gliosis and reduced pro-inflammatory M1 microglia in the CA1 field following TFI. Based on these results, we firmly propose that 50 mg/kg laminarin can be strategically applied to develop a preventative against injuries following cerebral ischemic insults. View Full-Text
Keywords: gliosis; ischemia-reperfusion; polysaccharide; pyramidal neurons; prevention; rodents gliosis; ischemia-reperfusion; polysaccharide; pyramidal neurons; prevention; rodents
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Lee, T.-K.; Ahn, J.H.; Park, C.W.; Kim, B.; Park, Y.E.; Lee, J.-C.; Park, J.H.; Yang, G.E.; Shin, M.C.; Cho, J.H.; Kang, I.-J.; Won, M.-H. Pre-Treatment with Laminarin Protects Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons and Attenuates Reactive Gliosis Following Transient Forebrain Ischemia in Gerbils. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 52.

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