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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Prevalence Ratios of Chondroitin Sulfate (CS)- 4 and -6 Isomers Derived from Marine Sources in Cell Proliferation and Chondrogenic Differentiation Processes

1
New Materials Group, Department of Applied Physics, University of Vigo, IISGS, MTI, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain
2
Unidad de Medicina Regenerativa, Grupo de Investigación en Reumatología, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC), CHUAC. SERGAS. C/ As Xubias de Arriba 84, 15006 A Coruña, Spain
3
Centro de Investigaciones Científicas Avanzadas (CICA), Universidade da Coruña (UDC), As Carballeiras S/N, Campus de Elviña, 15071 A Coruña, Spain
4
Grupo de Reciclado y Valorización de Materiales Residuales (REVAL), Instituto de Investigacións Mariñas (IIM-CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Spain
5
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red (CIBER), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain
6
Departamento de Medicina, Facultad Ciencias de la Salud, Campus de Oza, Universidade da Coruña (UDC), Campus de Oza, 15006 A Coruña, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020094
Received: 14 November 2019 / Revised: 24 January 2020 / Accepted: 27 January 2020 / Published: 31 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Polysaccharides)
Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent rheumatic disease. During disease progression, differences have been described in the prevalence of chondroitin sulfate (CS) isomers. Marine derived-CS present a higher proportion of the 6S isomer, offering therapeutic potential. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of exogenous supplementation of CS, derived from the small spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), blue shark (Prionace glauca), thornback skate (Raja clavata) and bovine CS (reference), on the proliferation of osteochondral cell lines (MG-63 and T/C-28a2) and the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MG-G3 proliferation was comparable between R. clavata (CS-6 intermediate ratio) and bovine CS (CS-4 enrichment), for concentrations below 0.5 mg/mL, defined as a toxicity threshold. T/C-28a2 proliferation was significantly improved by intermediate ratios of CS-6 and -4 isomers (S. canicula and R. clavata). A dose-dependent response was observed for S. canicula (200 µg/mL vs 50 and 10 µg/mL) and bovine CS (200 and 100 µg/mL vs 10 µg/mL). CS sulfation patterns discretely affected MSCs chondrogenesis; even though S. canicula and R. clavata CS up-regulated chondrogenic markers expression (aggrecan and collagen type II) these were not statistically significant. We demonstrate that intermediate values of CS-4 and -6 isomers improve cell proliferation and offer potential for chondrogenic promotion, although more studies are needed to elucidate its mechanism of action.
Keywords: chondroitin sulfate; osteoarthritis; chondrogenesis; fishery by-products; marine compounds; circular economy chondroitin sulfate; osteoarthritis; chondrogenesis; fishery by-products; marine compounds; circular economy
MDPI and ACS Style

López-Senra, E.; Casal-Beiroa, P.; López-Álvarez, M.; Serra, J.; González, P.; Valcarcel, J.; Vázquez, J.A.; Burguera, E.F.; Blanco, F.J.; Magalhães, J. Impact of Prevalence Ratios of Chondroitin Sulfate (CS)- 4 and -6 Isomers Derived from Marine Sources in Cell Proliferation and Chondrogenic Differentiation Processes. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 94.

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