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Open AccessArticle

Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides with Unusual Disulfide Connectivity from the Colonial Ascidian Synoicum turgens

1
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Breivika, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
2
Department of Chemistry, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Breivika, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
3
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Queensland, Australia
4
Marbio, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Breivika, N-9037, Tromsø, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010051
Received: 21 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 12 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
This study reports the isolation of two novel cysteine-rich antibacterial peptides, turgencin A and turgencin B, along with their oxidized derivatives, from the Arctic marine colonial ascidian Synoicum turgens. The peptides are post-translationally modified, containing six cysteines with an unusual disulfide connectivity of Cys1-Cys6, Cys2-Cys5, and Cys3-Cys4 and an amidated C-terminus. Furthermore, the peptides contain methionine residues resulting in the isolation of peptides with different degrees of oxidation. The most potent peptide, turgencin AMox1 with one oxidized methionine, displayed antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as low as 0.4 µM against selected bacterial strains. In addition, the peptide inhibited the growth of the melanoma cancer cell line A2058 (IC50 = 1.4 µM) and the human fibroblast cell line MRC-5 (IC50 = 4.8 µM). The results from this study show that natural peptides isolated from marine tunicates have the potential to be promising drug leads. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine; ascidian; peptide; antimicrobial; methionine oxidation marine; ascidian; peptide; antimicrobial; methionine oxidation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hansen, I.K.Ø.; Isaksson, J.; Poth, A.G.; Hansen, K.Ø.; Andersen, A.J.C.; Richard, C.S.M.; Blencke, H.-M.; Stensvåg, K.; Craik, D.J.; Haug, T. Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides with Unusual Disulfide Connectivity from the Colonial Ascidian Synoicum turgens. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 51.

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