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Open AccessArticle

Novel Efficient Bioprocessing of Marine Chitins into Active Anticancer Prodigiosin

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Division of Computational Mathematics and Engineering, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
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Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
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Department of Chemistry, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan
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Institute of Biotechnology and Environment, Tay Nguyen University, Buon Ma Thuot 630000, Vietnam
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Department of Science and Technology, Tay Nguyen University, Buon Ma Thuot 630000, Vietnam
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Division of Chinese Materia Medica Development, National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
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Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18010015
Received: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 23 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Products for Biomedicine)
Marine chitins (MC) have been utilized for the production of vast array of bioactive products, including chitooligomers, chitinase, chitosanase, antioxidants, anti-NO, and antidiabetic compounds. The aim of this study is the bioprocessing of MC into a potent anticancer compound, prodigiosin (PG), via microbial fermentation. This bioactive compound was produced by Serratia marcescens TKU011 with the highest yield of 4.62 mg/mL at the optimal conditions of liquid medium with initial pH of 5.65–6.15 containing 1% α-chitin, 0.6% casein, 0.05% K2HPO4, and 0.1% CaSO4. Fermentation was kept at 25 °C for 2 d. Notably, α-chitin was newly investigated as the major potential material for PG production via fermentation; the salt CaSO4 was also found to play the key role in the enhancement of PG yield of Serratia marcescens fermentation for the first time. PG was qualified and identified based on specific UV, MALDI-TOF MS analysis. In the biological activity tests, purified PG demonstrated potent anticancer activities against A549, Hep G2, MCF-7, and WiDr with the IC50 values of 0.06, 0.04, 0.04, and 0.2 µg/mL, respectively. Mytomycin C, a commercial anti-cancer compound was also tested for comparison purpose, showing weaker activity with the IC50 values of 0.11, 0.1, 0.14, and 0.15 µg/mL, respectively. As such, purified PG displayed higher 2.75-fold, 1.67-fold, and 3.25-fold efficacy than Mytomycin C against MCF-7, A549, and Hep G2, respectively. The results suggest that marine chitins are valuable sources for production of prodigiosin, a potential candidate for cancer drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-Chitin; prodigiosin; anti-tumors; Serratia marcescens; bioprocessing α-Chitin; prodigiosin; anti-tumors; Serratia marcescens; bioprocessing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, V.B.; Chen, S.-P.; Nguyen, T.H.; Nguyen, M.T.; Tran, T.T.T.; Doan, C.T.; Tran, T.N.; Nguyen, A.D.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Wang, S.-L. Novel Efficient Bioprocessing of Marine Chitins into Active Anticancer Prodigiosin. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 15.

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