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Open AccessArticle

The Protective Effect of Echinochrome A on Extracellular Matrix of Vocal Folds in Ovariectomized Rats

1
Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea
2
Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 49241, Korea
3
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 49241, Korea
4
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon 51353, Korea
5
Department of Life Science in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea
6
Institute for Translational Dental Science, Pusan National University, Yangsan 50612, Korea
7
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan 49241, Korea
8
National Research Laboratory for Mitochondrial Signaling, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Center (CMDC), Inje University, Busan 47391, Korea
9
G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18020077
Received: 2 December 2019 / Revised: 20 January 2020 / Accepted: 21 January 2020 / Published: 24 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Products for Biomedicine)
Here, we investigated the effects of sex hormones on extracellular matrix (ECM)-related gene expression in the vocal fold lamina propria of ovariectomized (after ovary removal) rats and verified whether echinochrome A (ECH) exerts any therapeutic effects on ECM reconstitution after estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats. Sprague–Dawley female rats (9 weeks old) were acclimatized for a week and randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 each group) as follows: group I (sham-operated rats, SHAM), group II (ovariectomized rats, OVX), group III (ovariectomized rats treated with ECH, OVX + ECH). Rats from the OVX + ECH group were intraperitoneally injected with ECH at 10 mg/kg thrice a week after surgery for 6 weeks. And rats were sacrificed 6 weeks after ovariectomy. Estradiol levels decreased in OVX group compared with the SHAM group. ECH treatment had no effect on the levels of estradiol and expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ). The evaluation of ECM components showed no significant changes in elastin and hyaluronic acid levels between the different groups. Collagen I and III levels were lower in OVX group than in SHAM group but increased in OVX + ECH group. The mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -8, and -9 were significantly higher in the OVX group than in the SHAM group, but decreased in the OVX + ECH group. Thus, changes were observed in ECM-related genes in the OVX group upon estradiol deficiency that were ameliorated by ECH administration. Thus, the vocal fold is an estradiol-sensitive target organ and ECH may have protective effects on the ECM of vocal folds in ovariectomized rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: echinochrome A; estradiol; extracellular matrix; vocal fold; ovariectomy echinochrome A; estradiol; extracellular matrix; vocal fold; ovariectomy
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Kim, J.M.; Kim, J.H.; Shin, S.-C.; Park, G.C.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, K.; Kim, H.K.; Han, J.; Mishchenko, N.P.; Vasileva, E.A.; Fedoreyev, S.A.; Stonik, V.A.; Lee, B.-J. The Protective Effect of Echinochrome A on Extracellular Matrix of Vocal Folds in Ovariectomized Rats. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 77.

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