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Neurotrophic Effect of Fish-Lecithin Based Nanoliposomes on Cortical Neurons

1
Research Unit Animal and Functionality of Animal Products, Quality of Diet and Aging Team (UR AFPA) Laboratory, Qualivie team, University of Lorraine, 54505 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France
2
LIBio Laboratory, University of Lorraine, 54505 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first authors.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(7), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17070406
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 29 June 2019 / Accepted: 1 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine-Derived Products for Biomedicine)
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Abstract

Lipids play multiple roles in preserving neuronal function and synaptic plasticity, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been of particular interest in optimizing synaptic membrane organization and function. We developed a green-based methodology to prepare nanoliposomes (NL) from lecithin that was extracted from fish head by-products. These NL range between 100–120 nm in diameter, with an n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio of 8.88. The high content of n-3 PUFA (46.3% of total fatty acid content) and docosahexanoic acid (26%) in these NL represented a means for enrichment of neuronal membranes that are potentially beneficial for neuronal growth and synaptogenesis. To test this, the primary cultures of rat embryo cortical neurons were incubated with NL on day 3 post-culture for 24 h, followed by immunoblots or immunofluorescence to evaluate the NL effects on synaptogenesis, axonal growth, and dendrite formation. The results revealed that NL-treated cells displayed a level of neurite outgrowth and arborization on day 4 that was similar to those of untreated cells on day 5 and 6, suggesting accelerated synapse formation and neuronal development in the presence of NL. We propose that fish-derived NL, by virtue of their n-3 PUFA profile and neurotrophic effects, represent a new innovative bioactive vector for developing preventive or curative treatments for neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 fatty acids; nanoparticles; brain n-3 fatty acids; nanoparticles; brain
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Malaplate, C.; Poerio, A.; Huguet, M.; Soligot, C.; Passeri, E.; Kahn, C.J.F.; Linder, M.; Arab-Tehrany, E.; Yen, F.T. Neurotrophic Effect of Fish-Lecithin Based Nanoliposomes on Cortical Neurons. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 406.

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