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Open AccessArticle

Biorefining and the Functional Properties of Proteins from Lipid and Pigment Extract Residue of Chlorella pyrenoidosa

by 1,2,3,†, 1,2,3,†, 2,4, 1,2,3,*, 1,2,3,* and 1,2,3
1
Technical Innovation Service Platform for High Value and High Quality Utilization of Marine Organism, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China
2
Fujian Engineering and Technology Research Center for Comprehensive Utilization of Marine Products Waste, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China
3
Fuzhou Industrial Technology Innovation Center for High Value Utilization of Marine Products, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China
4
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(8), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17080454
Received: 21 July 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds Derived from Marine Microalgae)
Microalgae are considered as excellent candidates for bioactive compounds, yet microalgal residues remaining after the extraction of one or two compounds are usually discarded, which is not economical. This study demonstrates the alkaline extraction of proteins from Chlorella pyrenoidosa residue after lipid and pigment extractions, and their functional properties. Single-factor experiments and response surface methodology were used to obtain the optimal conditions for protein extraction. Based on our results, a maximum protein yield of 722.70 mg/g, was obtained under the following extraction conditions: sodium hydroxide concentration 7.90%, extraction temperature 70.00 °C, extraction time 34.80 min, and microalgal residue concentration 8.20 mg/mL. The molecular weight of microalgal residue protein isolate (MRPI) was mainly distributed at the regions of 0.18–0.50 kDa, 0.50–1.50 kDa, and 1.50–5.00 kDa. The essential amino acid content was greater than the values recommended by FAO/WHO standards; a high essential amino acid index value (1.49) was another good indication that MRPI is suitable for human consumption. Moreover, MRPI exhibited excellent emulsifying properties and antioxidant activity, which suggests it may be useful as an emulsifying agent and antioxidant. These findings could improve the extraction methods of functional protein from microalgal residue and add value to microalgae-based bioactive compound production processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgal residue; alkaline extraction; proteins; response surface methodology; functional properties microalgal residue; alkaline extraction; proteins; response surface methodology; functional properties
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Lu, K.; Zhao, X.; Ho, S.-H.; Ma, R.; Xie, Y.; Chen, J. Biorefining and the Functional Properties of Proteins from Lipid and Pigment Extract Residue of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 454.

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