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Open AccessArticle

Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous-Derived Astaxanthin Regulates Lipid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota in Obese Mice Induced by A High-Fat Diet

1
Engineering Research Center of Health Food Design & Nutrition Regulation, School of Chemical Engineering and Energy Technology, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523808, China
2
School of Biological Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China
3
School of Food Science and Engineering, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060337
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent)
Astaxanthin is an important antioxidant with many biological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and immuno-modulatory activities. Most of these biological activities are derived from (3S,3′S)-astaxanthin, while the activities of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin are rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin on lipid metabolism and gut microbiota in mice fed with a high-fat diet. In this work, 40 male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 8 groups fed a high-fat diet supplemented or not with (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin or Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous for 8 weeks. The weight gain, energy intake, fat index, plasma triacylglycerol and cholesterol, liver triacylglycerol and cholesterol, and gut microbiota were determined. The results showed that the addition of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin/X. dendrorhous to the high-fat diet as a supplement prevented weight gain, reduced plasma and liver triacylglycerol, and decreased plasma and liver total cholesterol. The addition of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin/X. dendrorhous also regulated the gut microbiota of the mice, which optimized the ratio of Bacteroides to Firmicutes and increased the content of Verrucomicrobia, especially Akkermansia. The changes in the gut microflora achieved a healthier structure, thus reducing the incidence of obesity. Thus (3R,3′R)-Astaxanthin has the function of regulating lipid metabolism and gut microbiota to prevent obesity caused by a high-fat diet. The production strain of (3R,3′R)-astaxanthin, X. dendrorhous, has the same function as astaxanthin in preventing obesity caused by a high-fat diet, which reflects its potential ability as a probiotic drug. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous; lipid metabolism; gut microbiota; obesity astaxanthin; Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous; lipid metabolism; gut microbiota; obesity
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Wang, J.; Liu, S.; Wang, H.; Xiao, S.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Liu, B. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous-Derived Astaxanthin Regulates Lipid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota in Obese Mice Induced by A High-Fat Diet. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 337.

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