Next Article in Journal
Prebiotics from Seaweeds: An Ocean of Opportunity?
Next Article in Special Issue
Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analysis of the Tentacles and Mucus of Anthopleura dowii Verrill, 1869
Previous Article in Journal
In Vitro Studies Reveal Antiurolithic Effect of Antioxidant Sulfated Polysaccharides from the Green Seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides var flabellata
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Sea Anemone Toxins: A Structural Overview

1
Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
2
Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
3
Centre for Ecology and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060325
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
Sea anemones produce venoms of exceptional molecular diversity, with at least 17 different molecular scaffolds reported to date. These venom components have traditionally been classified according to pharmacological activity and amino acid sequence. However, this classification system suffers from vulnerabilities due to functional convergence and functional promiscuity. Furthermore, for most known sea anemone toxins, the exact receptors they target are either unknown, or at best incomplete. In this review, we first provide an overview of the sea anemone venom system and then focus on the venom components. We have organised the venom components by distinguishing firstly between proteins and non-proteinaceous compounds, secondly between enzymes and other proteins without enzymatic activity, then according to the structural scaffold, and finally according to molecular target. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea anemone; venom; toxin; molecular scaffold; neurotoxin; cytotoxin; enzyme sea anemone; venom; toxin; molecular scaffold; neurotoxin; cytotoxin; enzyme
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Madio, B.; King, G.F.; Undheim, E.A.B. Sea Anemone Toxins: A Structural Overview. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 325.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop