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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Sea Anemone Toxins: A Structural Overview

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Centre for Ecology and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 325;
Received: 24 April 2019 / Revised: 22 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
Sea anemones produce venoms of exceptional molecular diversity, with at least 17 different molecular scaffolds reported to date. These venom components have traditionally been classified according to pharmacological activity and amino acid sequence. However, this classification system suffers from vulnerabilities due to functional convergence and functional promiscuity. Furthermore, for most known sea anemone toxins, the exact receptors they target are either unknown, or at best incomplete. In this review, we first provide an overview of the sea anemone venom system and then focus on the venom components. We have organised the venom components by distinguishing firstly between proteins and non-proteinaceous compounds, secondly between enzymes and other proteins without enzymatic activity, then according to the structural scaffold, and finally according to molecular target. View Full-Text
Keywords: sea anemone; venom; toxin; molecular scaffold; neurotoxin; cytotoxin; enzyme sea anemone; venom; toxin; molecular scaffold; neurotoxin; cytotoxin; enzyme
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Madio, B.; King, G.F.; Undheim, E.A.B. Sea Anemone Toxins: A Structural Overview. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 325.

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