Next Article in Journal
A Multi-screening Evaluation of the Nutritional and Nutraceutical Potential of the Mediterranean Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca
Previous Article in Journal
Antithrombotics from the Sea: Polysaccharides and Beyond
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Stereo-Selective Pharmacokinetics of Ilimaquinone Epimers Extracted from a Marine Sponge in Rats

College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 144 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3M2, Canada
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea
Department of Bio and Fermentation Convergence Technology, BK21 PLUS Program, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea
School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 171;
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 17 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacokinetic Research of Marine Drugs)
PDF [5059 KB, uploaded 17 March 2019]


An ilimquinone (IQ) mixture isolated from Hippiospongia metachromia, consisting of IQ and epi-ilimaquinone (epi-IQ), exerts anti-HIV, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. An HPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous determination of the two epimers in rat plasma, separating them using a biphenyl column. Ascorbic acid is added during the sample preparation to ensure the stability of both isomers. The plasma concentrations of the isomers were monitored following intravenous and oral administration of the IQ mixture in rats as well as the individual epimers that were separately orally administered. Compare to IQ, epi-IQ was much more stable in rat plasma, likely due to its configurations of decalin. Both substances decayed in more than bi-exponential pattern, with an elimination rate constant of 1.2 h−1 for IQ and 1.7 h−1 for epi-IQ. The epi-IQ was distributed more widely than IQ by about two-fold. Consequently, the clearance of epi-IQ was greater than that of IQ by about three-fold. The oral absolute bioavailability for IQ was 38%, and, that for epi-IQ, was 13%. Although the systemic exposure of IQ was greater than that of epi-IQ by ~8.7-fold, the clearance of each isomer was similar when administered either orally or intravenously, when normalized for bioavailability. The stereo-specific behavior of the isomers appears to originate from differences in both their tissue distribution and gastrointestinal permeability. View Full-Text
Keywords: ilimaquinone; epi-ilimaquinone; stereo-selective pharmacokinetics; HPLC-MS/MS; rat ilimaquinone; epi-ilimaquinone; stereo-selective pharmacokinetics; HPLC-MS/MS; rat

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Son, H.; Noh, K.; Park, I.; Na, M.; Oh, S.; Shin, B.S.; Kang, W. Stereo-Selective Pharmacokinetics of Ilimaquinone Epimers Extracted from a Marine Sponge in Rats. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 171.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top