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Open AccessArticle

Discovery of Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate Synthase (GGPPS) Paralogs from Haematococcus pluvialis Based on Iso-Seq Analysis and Their Function on Astaxanthin Biosynthesis

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresource and Eco-environmental Science, Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Marine Algal Biotechnology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Epigenetics, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(12), 696;
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 7 December 2019 / Accepted: 10 December 2019 / Published: 12 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic and Biosynthetic Approaches to Marine Natural Products)
Haematococcus pluvialis is widely distributed in the world and well known as the richest natural source of astaxanthin that is a strong antioxidant with excellent commercial value. The pathway of astaxanthin biosynthesis in H. pluvialis has been documented as an enzymatic reaction. Several enzymes have been reported, but their isoforms or homologs have not been investigated genome-wide. To better understand the astaxanthin biosynthesis pathway in H. pluvialis, eight candidates of the geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase gene (HpGGPPS) predicted from Iso-seq data were isolated in this study. The length of coding region of these candidates varied from 960 bp to 1272 bp, composing of 7–9 exons. The putative amino acids of all candidates composed the signature domain of GGPPS gene. However, the motifs in the domain region are varied, indicating different bio-functions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed eight candidates can be clustered into three groups. Only two candidates in Group1 encode the synthase participating in the astaxanthin formation. The yield of astaxanthin from these two candidates, 7.1 mg/g (DW) and 6.5 mg/g (DW) respectively, is significant higher than that from CrtE (2.4 mg/g DW), a GGPPS gene from Pantoea ananatis. This study provides a potential productive pathway for astaxanthin synthesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: GGPPS; Haematococcus pluvialis; astaxanthin; Iso-Seq GGPPS; Haematococcus pluvialis; astaxanthin; Iso-Seq
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Huang, D.; Liu, W.; Li, A.; Wang, C.; Hu, Z. Discovery of Geranylgeranyl Pyrophosphate Synthase (GGPPS) Paralogs from Haematococcus pluvialis Based on Iso-Seq Analysis and Their Function on Astaxanthin Biosynthesis. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 696.

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