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Phlorotannins from Ecklonia cava Attenuates Palmitate-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Leptin Resistance in Hypothalamic Neurons
Open AccessArticle

Pyrogallol-Phloroglucinol-6,6-Bieckol Alleviates Obesity and Systemic Inflammation in a Mouse Model by Reducing Expression of RAGE and RAGE Ligands

1
Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon 21936, Korea
2
Functional Cellular Networks Laboratory, College of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Graduate School and Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, Incheon 21999, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(11), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17110612
Received: 15 September 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine Drugs in the Management of Metabolic Diseases)
Ecklonia cava (E. cava) can alleviate diet-induced obesity in animal models, and phlorotannins contained in E. cava help prevent hypertrophy-induced adipocyte differentiation. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is well known to induce hypertrophy of visceral fat and to trigger inflammation substantially. While the relationship between RAGE and obesity and inflammation has been well-characterized, few studies describe the effects of phlorotannin on RAGE. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of pyrogallol-phloroglucinol-6,6-bieckol (PPB)—a single compound from the ethanoic extract of E. cava—mediated by a reduction in the inflammation caused by RAGE and RAGE ligands. In visceral fat, PPB (i) significantly inhibited RAGE ligands, (ii) reduced the expression of RAGE, and (iii) reduced the binding ratio between RAGE and RAGE ligands. Under lower expression of RAGE, RAGE ligands and their cognate binding, the differentiation of macrophages found in visceral fat into M1-type—the pro-inflammatory form of this immune cell—was reduced. As the M1-type macrophage decreased, pro-inflammatory cytokines, which cause obesity, decreased in visceral fat. The results of this study highlight the anti-obesity effects of PPB, with the effects mediated by reductions in RAGE, RAGE ligands, and inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; hypertrophy; Ecklonia cava; phlorotannin; RAGE; inflammation obesity; hypertrophy; Ecklonia cava; phlorotannin; RAGE; inflammation
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Choi, J.; Oh, S.; Son, M.; Byun, K. Pyrogallol-Phloroglucinol-6,6-Bieckol Alleviates Obesity and Systemic Inflammation in a Mouse Model by Reducing Expression of RAGE and RAGE Ligands. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 612.

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