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Open AccessArticle

Biological Effects of the Azaspiracid-Producing Dinoflagellate Azadinium dexteroporum in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mediterranean Sea

1
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
2
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Umbria e Marche, Via Cupa di Posatora, 3, 60131 Ancona, Italy
3
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, Via Salute 2, 80055 Portici (NA), Italy
4
Dipartimento di Ecologia Marina Integrata, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(10), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17100595
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Plankton)
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins including a variety of analogues. Recently, novel AZAs produced by the Mediterranean dinoflagellate Azadinium dexteroporum were discovered (AZA-54, AZA-55, 3-epi-AZA-7, AZA-56, AZA-57 and AZA-58) and their biological effects have not been investigated yet. This study aimed to identify the biological responses (biomarkers) induced in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis after the bioaccumulation of AZAs from A. dexteroporum. Organisms were fed with A. dexteroporum for 21 days and subsequently subjected to a recovery period (normal diet) of 21 days. Exposed organisms accumulated AZA-54, 3-epi-AZA-7 and AZA-55, predominantly in the digestive gland. Mussels’ haemocytes showed inhibition of phagocytosis activity, modulation of the composition of haemocytic subpopulation and damage to lysosomal membranes; the digestive tissue displayed thinned tubule walls, consumption of storage lipids and accumulation of lipofuscin. Slight genotoxic damage was also observed. No clear occurrence of oxidative stress and alteration of nervous activity was detected in AZA-accumulating mussels. Most of the altered parameters returned to control levels after the recovery phase. The toxic effects detected in M. galloprovincialis demonstrate a clear biological impact of the AZAs produced by A. dexteroporum, and could be used as early indicators of contamination associated with the ingestion of seafood. View Full-Text
Keywords: azaspiracids; Azadinium dexteroporum; biotoxins; mussels; biomarkers; immune responses; storage lipids; genotoxicity azaspiracids; Azadinium dexteroporum; biotoxins; mussels; biomarkers; immune responses; storage lipids; genotoxicity
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Giuliani, M.E.; Accoroni, S.; Mezzelani, M.; Lugarini, F.; Bacchiocchi, S.; Siracusa, M.; Tavoloni, T.; Piersanti, A.; Totti, C.; Regoli, F.; Rossi, R.; Zingone, A.; Gorbi, S. Biological Effects of the Azaspiracid-Producing Dinoflagellate Azadinium dexteroporum in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 595.

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