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Marine Skeletons: Towards Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration
Open AccessArticle

Marine Collagen/Apatite Composite Scaffolds Envisaging Hard Tissue Applications

3B’s Research Group—Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal
ICVS/3B’s—PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
New Materials Group, Department of Applied Physics, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Galicia Sur IISGS, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Spain
The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision Medicine, Headquarters at University of Minho, Avepark, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(8), 269;
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration)
The high prevalence of bone defects has become a worldwide problem. Despite the significant amount of research on the subject, the available therapeutic solutions lack efficiency. Autografts, the most commonly used approaches to treat bone defects, have limitations such as donor site morbidity, pain and lack of donor site. Marine resources emerge as an attractive alternative to extract bioactive compounds for further use in bone tissue-engineering approaches. On one hand they can be isolated from by-products, at low cost, creating value from products that are considered waste for the fish transformation industry. One the other hand, religious constraints will be avoided. We isolated two marine origin materials, collagen from shark skin (Prionace glauca) and calcium phosphates from the teeth of two different shark species (Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus), and further proposed to mix them to produce 3D composite structures for hard tissue applications. Two crosslinking agents, 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), were tested to enhance the scaffolds’ properties, with EDC/NHS resulting in better properties. The characterization of the structures showed that the developed composites could support attachment and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. A promising scaffold for the engineering of bone tissue is thus proposed, based on a strategy of marine by-products valorisation. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine biomaterials; composites; bone tissue engineering; collagen; calcium-phosphates; shark by-products marine biomaterials; composites; bone tissue engineering; collagen; calcium-phosphates; shark by-products
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Diogo, G.S.; López-Senra, E.L.; Pirraco, R.P.; Canadas, R.F.; Fernandes, E.M.; Serra, J.; Pérez-Martín, R.I.; Sotelo, C.G.; Marques, A.P.; González, P.; Moreira-Silva, J.; Silva, T.H.; Reis, R.L. Marine Collagen/Apatite Composite Scaffolds Envisaging Hard Tissue Applications. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 269.

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