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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100387

Sandensolide Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in Oral Cancer Cells and in Zebrafish Xenograft Model

1
Department of Orthopedics, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan 73659, Taiwan
2
Department of Nutrition and Health Science, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 83102, Taiwan
3
Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
4
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
5
Weight Management Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
6
College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
7
Department of Physiology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
8
Department of Nursing, Min-Hwei Junior College of Health Care Management, Tainan City 73658, Taiwan
9
Department of Pharmacology, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
10
Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
11
Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antitumor Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Abstract

Presently, natural sources and herbs are being sought for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in order to alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy. This study investigates the effect of sandensolide, a cembrane isolated from Sinularia flexibilis, to inhibit human OSCC cell growth with the aim of developing a new drug for the treatment of oral cancer. In vitro cultured human OSCC models (Ca9.22, SCC9 and HSC-3 cell lines) and oral normal cells (HGF-1), as well as a zebrafish xenograft model, were used to test the cytotoxicity of sandensolide (MTT assay), as well as to perform cell cycle analysis and Western blotting. Both the in vitro bioassay and the zebrafish xenograft model demonstrated the anti-oral cancer effect of sandensolide. Moreover, sandensolide was able to significantly suppress colony formation and induce apoptosis, as well as cell cycle arrest, in OSCC by regulating multiple key proteins. Induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in sandensolide-treated oral cancer cells. However, these apoptotic changes were rescued by NAC pretreatment. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the model of action of sandensolide, which may induce oxidative stress-mediated cell death pathways as a potential agent in oral cancer therapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: human oral squamous cell carcinoma; sandensolide; reactive oxygen species human oral squamous cell carcinoma; sandensolide; reactive oxygen species
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, C.-I.; Chen, C.-Y.; Liu, W.; Chang, P.-C.; Huang, C.-W.; Han, K.-F.; Lin, I.-P.; Lin, M.-Y.; Lee, C.-H. Sandensolide Induces Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in Oral Cancer Cells and in Zebrafish Xenograft Model. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 387.

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