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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100344

Isolation and Chemical Characterization of Chondroitin Sulfate from Cartilage By-Products of Blackmouth Catshark (Galeus melastomus)

1
Group of Recycling and Valorisation of Waste Materials (REVAL), Marine Research Institute (IIM-CSIC), Eduardo Cabello, 6. Vigo, 36208 Galicia, Spain
2
Group of Food Biochemistry, Marine Research Institute (IIM-CSIC), Eduardo Cabello, 6. Vigo, 36208 Galicia, Spain
3
3B’s Research Group—Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Barco, 4805-017 Guimarães, Portugal
4
ICVS/3B’s—PT Government Associate Laboratory, 4805-017 Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
5
The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision Medicine, Headquarters at University of Minho, Avepark, Barco, 4805-017 Guimarães, Portugal
6
Group of Bioprocess Engineering, Marine Research Institute (IIM-CSIC), Eduardo Cabello, 6. Vigo, 36208 Galicia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan actively researched for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and tissue engineering applications. CS extracted from marine animals displays different features from common terrestrial sources, resulting in distinct properties, such as anti-viral and anti-metastatic. Therefore, exploration of undescribed marine species holds potential to expand the possibilities of currently-known CS. Accordingly, we have studied for the first time the production and characterization of CS from blackmouth catshark (Galeus melastomus), a shark species commonly discarded as by-catch. The process of CS purification consists of cartilage hydrolysis with alcalase, followed by two different chemical treatments and ending with membrane purification. All steps were optimized by response surface methodology. According to this, the best conditions for cartilage proteolysis were established at 52.9 °C and pH = 7.31. Subsequent purification by either alkaline treatment or hydroalcoholic alkaline precipitation yielded CS with purities of 81.2%, 82.3% and 97.4% respectively, after 30-kDa membrane separation. The molecular weight of CS obtained ranges 53–66 kDa, depending on the conditions. Sulfation profiles were similar for all materials, with dominant CS-C (GlcA-GalNAc6S) units (55%), followed by 23–24% of CS-A (GlcA-GalNAc4S), a substantial amount (15–16%) of CS-D (GlcA2S-GalNAc6S) and less than 7% of other disulfated and unsulfated disaccharides. View Full-Text
Keywords: chondroitin sulfate production; cartilage Galeus melastomus by-products; sulfation patterns; process optimization; molecular weight glycosaminoglycans determination; bycatch waste management chondroitin sulfate production; cartilage Galeus melastomus by-products; sulfation patterns; process optimization; molecular weight glycosaminoglycans determination; bycatch waste management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vázquez, J.A.; Fraguas, J.; Novoa-Carvallal, R.; Reis, R.L.; Antelo, L.T.; Pérez-Martín, R.I.; Valcarcel, J. Isolation and Chemical Characterization of Chondroitin Sulfate from Cartilage By-Products of Blackmouth Catshark (Galeus melastomus). Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 344.

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