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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090334

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Astaxanthin, Lutein, and Fatty Acids from Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae

1
ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Sustainability, CR Trisaia SS Jonica 106, km 419+500, 75026 Rotondella, Italy
2
ENEA, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Sustainability, CR Portici. P. Enrico Fermi, 1, 80055 Portici, Italy
3
Department of Engineering, Università degli Studi della Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Real Casa dell’Annunziata, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract

Haematococcus pluvialis microalgae in the red phase can produce significant amounts of astaxanthin, lutein, and fatty acids (FAs), which are valuable antioxidants in nutraceutics and cosmetics. Extraction of astaxanthin, lutein, and FAs from disrupted biomass of the H. pluvialis red phase using carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) conditions was investigated using a bench-scale reactor in a semi-batch configuration. In particular, the effect of extraction time (20, 40, 60, 80, and 120 min), CO2 flow rate (3.62 and 14.48 g/min) temperature (50, 65, and 80 °C), and pressure (100, 400, and 550 bar.) was explored. The results show the maximum recovery of astaxanthin and lutein achieved were 98.6% and 52.3%, respectively, at 50 °C and 550 bars, while the maximum recovery of FAs attained was 93.2% at 65 °C and 550 bars. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; Haematococcus pluvialis; astaxanthin; lutein; fatty acids; supercritical fluid extraction; natural medicines microalgae; Haematococcus pluvialis; astaxanthin; lutein; fatty acids; supercritical fluid extraction; natural medicines
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Sanzo, G.D.; Mehariya, S.; Martino, M.; Larocca, V.; Casella, P.; Chianese, S.; Musmarra, D.; Balducchi, R.; Molino, A. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Astaxanthin, Lutein, and Fatty Acids from Haematococcus pluvialis Microalgae. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 334.

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