Next Article in Journal
Marine Algae as Source of Novel Antileishmanial Drugs: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Determination of the Deacetylation Degree of Chitooligosaccharides
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(11), 333;

Krishnolides A–D: New 2-Ketokhayanolides from the Krishna Mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis

Marine Drugs Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Avenue West, Guangzhou 510632, China
Government Degree College at Amadala Valasa, Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh 532185, India
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, 1838 Guangzhou Avenue North, Guangzhou 510515, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [2471 KB, uploaded 27 October 2017]   |  


Four new khayanolide-type limonoids with a 2-carbonyl group, named krishnolides A–D (14), were isolated from the seeds of an Indian mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis, collected in the mangrove swamp of Krishna estuary, Andhra Pradesh. The relative and absolute configurations of these compounds were established by HR-ESIMS, extensive NMR investigations, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with CuKα radiation, and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Krishnolides A–D are unusual khayanolides containing two large ester substituents of five or four carbon atoms at the C-3 and C-30 positions, respectively. Krishnolide A, containing an 8,14-epoxy group, exhibited moderate anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) activity with an IC50 value of 17.45 ± 1.65 μM and a CC50 value of 78.45 ± 1.69 μM, respectively. This is not only the first report of natural khayanolides from Indian mangroves of the genus Xylocarpus, but also the first report of the anti-HIV activity of khayanolide. View Full-Text
Keywords: mangrove; Xylocarpus moluccensis; limonoid; khayanolide; anti-HIV mangrove; Xylocarpus moluccensis; limonoid; khayanolide; anti-HIV

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Q.; Satyanandamurty, T.; Shen, L.; Wu, J. Krishnolides A–D: New 2-Ketokhayanolides from the Krishna Mangrove, Xylocarpus moluccensis. Mar. Drugs 2017, 15, 333.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top