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Correction published on 8 December 2015, see Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7301.
Open AccessReview

Diatom Milking: A Review and New Approaches

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Department of Criminology & Forensic Science, School of Applied Sciences, Dr. H.S. Gour University (Central University), Sagar Madhya Pradesh, India
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Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA 31061, USA
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MicroMar, Mer Molécules Santé, IUML—FR 3473 CNRS, University of Le Mans, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9, France
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MicroMar, Mer Molécules Santé, IUML—FR 3473 CNRS, University of Le Mans, IUT de Laval, Rue des Drs Calmette et Guerin, 53020 Laval Cedex 9, France
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ChimiMar, Mer Molécules Santé, IUML—FR 3473 CNRS, University of Le Mans, IUT de Laval, Rue des Drs Calmette et Guerin, 53020 Laval Cedex 9, France
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Gulf Specimen Aquarium & Marine Laboratory, Panacea, FL 32346, USA
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Mott Center for Human Growth and Development, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Wayne State University, 275 E. Hancock, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alejandro Mayer
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(5), 2629-2665; https://doi.org/10.3390/md13052629
Received: 10 December 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2015 / Accepted: 17 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
The rise of human populations and the growth of cities contribute to the depletion of natural resources, increase their cost, and create potential climatic changes. To overcome difficulties in supplying populations and reducing the resource cost, a search for alternative pharmaceutical, nanotechnology, and energy sources has begun. Among the alternative sources, microalgae are the most promising because they use carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce biomass and/or valuable compounds. Once produced, the biomass is ordinarily harvested and processed (downstream program). Drying, grinding, and extraction steps are destructive to the microalgal biomass that then needs to be renewed. The extraction and purification processes generate organic wastes and require substantial energy inputs. Altogether, it is urgent to develop alternative downstream processes. Among the possibilities, milking invokes the concept that the extraction should not kill the algal cells. Therefore, it does not require growing the algae anew. In this review, we discuss research on milking of diatoms. The main themes are (a) development of alternative methods to extract and harvest high added value compounds; (b) design of photobioreactors; (c) biodiversity and (d) stress physiology, illustrated with original results dealing with oleaginous diatoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: diatom; biotechnology; milking; physiology; stress; biofuel; secondary metabolites diatom; biotechnology; milking; physiology; stress; biofuel; secondary metabolites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vinayak, V.; Manoylov, K.M.; Gateau, H.; Blanckaert, V.; Hérault, J.; Pencréac'h, G.; Marchand, J.; Gordon, R.; Schoefs, B. Diatom Milking: A Review and New Approaches. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 2629-2665.

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