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Opinion

The Role of Prevention in Reducing the Economic Impact of ME/CFS in Europe: A Report from the Socioeconomics Working Group of the European Network on ME/CFS (EUROMENE)

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Society and Health, Buckinghamshire New University, High Wycombe HP11 2JZ, UK
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Department of Dosage Form Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Riga Stradins University, Dzirciema Street 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
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Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, Dzirciema Street 16, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
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Department of Economics and Finance, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Agostino Gemelli 1, 20123 Milan, Italy
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School of Business & Economics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, H91 TK33 Galway, Ireland
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Internal Medicine Department, University of Lorraine, 34, Cours Léopold CS 25233, F-54052 Nancy, France
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University Hospital of Nancy, Rue du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy, France
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Department of Economics, University of Messina, Piazza Pugliatti 1, 98122 Messina, Italy
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Centre for Health Economics & Medicines Evaluation, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2PZ, UK
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Department of Primary Care and Population Health, Royal Free Medical School, University College London, London NW3 2PF, UK
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Global Brain Health Institute, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, D02 PN40 Dublin, Ireland
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Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edgaras Stankevičius
Medicina 2021, 57(4), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040388
Received: 13 March 2021 / Revised: 12 April 2021 / Accepted: 13 April 2021 / Published: 16 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ME/CFS: Causes, Clinical Features and Diagnosis)
This report addresses the extent to which there may be scope for preventive programmes for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), and, if so, what economic benefits may accrue from the implementation of such programmes. We consider the economic case for prevention programmes, whether there is scope for preventive programmes for ME/CFS, and what are the health and economic benefits to be derived from the implementation of such programmes. We conclude that there is little scope for primary prevention programmes, given that ME/CFS is attributable to a combination of host and environmental risk factors, with host factors appearing to be most prominent, and that there are few identified modifiable risk factors that could be the focus of such programmes. The exception is in the use of agricultural chemicals, particularly organophosphates, where there is scope for intervention, and where Europe-wide programmes of health education to encourage safe use would be beneficial. There is a need for more research on risk factors for ME/CFS to establish a basis for the development of primary prevention programmes, particularly in respect of occupational risk factors. Secondary prevention offers the greatest scope for intervention, to minimise diagnostic delays associated with prolonged illness, increased severity, and increased costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: prevention; economic impact; chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; ME/CFS prevention; economic impact; chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; ME/CFS
MDPI and ACS Style

Pheby, D.F.H.; Araja, D.; Berkis, U.; Brenna, E.; Cullinan, J.; de Korwin, J.-D.; Gitto, L.; Hughes, D.A.; Hunter, R.M.; Trepel, D.; Wang-Steverding, X. The Role of Prevention in Reducing the Economic Impact of ME/CFS in Europe: A Report from the Socioeconomics Working Group of the European Network on ME/CFS (EUROMENE). Medicina 2021, 57, 388. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040388

AMA Style

Pheby DFH, Araja D, Berkis U, Brenna E, Cullinan J, de Korwin J-D, Gitto L, Hughes DA, Hunter RM, Trepel D, Wang-Steverding X. The Role of Prevention in Reducing the Economic Impact of ME/CFS in Europe: A Report from the Socioeconomics Working Group of the European Network on ME/CFS (EUROMENE). Medicina. 2021; 57(4):388. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040388

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pheby, Derek F.H., Diana Araja, Uldis Berkis, Elenka Brenna, John Cullinan, Jean-Dominique de Korwin, Lara Gitto, Dyfrig A. Hughes, Rachael M. Hunter, Dominic Trepel, and Xia Wang-Steverding. 2021. "The Role of Prevention in Reducing the Economic Impact of ME/CFS in Europe: A Report from the Socioeconomics Working Group of the European Network on ME/CFS (EUROMENE)" Medicina 57, no. 4: 388. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57040388

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