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Article

Diversification of Ferredoxins across Living Organisms

1
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
2
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Genetics, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
3
Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Center, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work.
Academic Editor: Hidayat Hussain
Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43(3), 1374-1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb43030098
Received: 30 August 2021 / Revised: 23 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 30 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
Ferredoxins, iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins, play a key role in oxidoreduction reactions. To date, evolutionary analysis of these proteins across the domains of life have been confined to observing the abundance of Fe-S cluster types (2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, 4Fe-4S, 7Fe-8S (3Fe-4s and 4Fe-4S) and 2[4Fe-4S]) and the diversity of ferredoxins within these cluster types was not studied. To address this research gap, here we propose a subtype classification and nomenclature for ferredoxins based on the characteristic spacing between the cysteine amino acids of the Fe-S binding motif as a subtype signature to assess the diversity of ferredoxins across the living organisms. To test this hypothesis, comparative analysis of ferredoxins between bacterial groups, Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes and ferredoxins collected from species of different domains of life that are reported in the literature has been carried out. Ferredoxins were found to be highly diverse within their types. Large numbers of alphaproteobacterial species ferredoxin subtypes were found in Firmicutes species and the same ferredoxin subtypes across the species of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, suggesting shared common ancestral origin of ferredoxins between Archaea and Bacteria and lateral gene transfer of ferredoxins from prokaryotes (Archaea/Bacteria) to eukaryotes. This study opened new vistas for further analysis of diversity of ferredoxins in living organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Archaea; Bacteria; domains of life; Eukarya; evolution; ferredoxins; lateral gene transfer; iron-sulfur proteins Archaea; Bacteria; domains of life; Eukarya; evolution; ferredoxins; lateral gene transfer; iron-sulfur proteins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nzuza, N.; Padayachee, T.; Chen, W.; Gront, D.; Nelson, D.R.; Syed, K. Diversification of Ferredoxins across Living Organisms. Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2021, 43, 1374-1390. https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb43030098

AMA Style

Nzuza N, Padayachee T, Chen W, Gront D, Nelson DR, Syed K. Diversification of Ferredoxins across Living Organisms. Current Issues in Molecular Biology. 2021; 43(3):1374-1390. https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb43030098

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nzuza, Nomfundo, Tiara Padayachee, Wanping Chen, Dominik Gront, David R. Nelson, and Khajamohiddin Syed. 2021. "Diversification of Ferredoxins across Living Organisms" Current Issues in Molecular Biology 43, no. 3: 1374-1390. https://doi.org/10.3390/cimb43030098

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