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Open AccessArticle

Controlling Persister and Biofilm Cells of Gram-Negative Bacteria with a New 1,3,5-Triazine Derivative

by Ali Adem Bahar 1,2,†, Zhigang Liu 3,†, Meagan Garafalo 1,2, Neville Kallenbach 3,* and Dacheng Ren 1,2,4,5,*
1
Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
2
Syracuse Biomaterials Institute, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
3
Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
5
Department of Biology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8(4), 696-710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph8040696
Received: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 10 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Biofilms)
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria have been on the rise. This important issue presents a great challenge to the healthcare system and creates an urgent need for alternative therapeutic agents. As a potential solution to this problem, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted increasing attention due to their broad spectrum of targeted microbes. However, most AMPs are expensive to synthesize, have relatively high cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, and are susceptible to proteolytic degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, novel synthetic AMPs are desired. Using 1,3,5-triazine (TN) as a template, several combinatorial libraries with varying cationic charge and lipophilicity were designed and screened by the Kallenbach lab. From this screening, TN-5 was identified as a potent lead. In the present study, this compound was tested for its antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition to regular planktonic cells, the effects on biofilms and persister cells (metabolically inactive and antibiotic tolerant subpopulation) were also investigated. TN-5 was found to have a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.8 μM for both species and kill regular planktonic cells of both species dose dependently. TN-5 is also effective against persister cells of both E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The killing of biofilm cells of the mucoid P. aeruginosa PDO300 was enhanced by alginate lyase. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; biofilm; persister cells; TN-5; Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas aeruginosa antimicrobial peptide; biofilm; persister cells; TN-5; Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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Bahar, A.A.; Liu, Z.; Garafalo, M.; Kallenbach, N.; Ren, D. Controlling Persister and Biofilm Cells of Gram-Negative Bacteria with a New 1,3,5-Triazine Derivative. Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8, 696-710.

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