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Antifungal Activity of Extracts, Fractions, and Constituents from Coccoloba cowellii Leaves

Chicory Extracts and Sesquiterpene Lactones Show Potent Activity against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., P.O. Box 1000, Tietotie 2, FI-02044 VTT Espoo, Finland
Institute for Biological Research “Sinisa Stankovic”, National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
iBET, Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica, Apartado 12, 2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal
CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Centre, NOVA Medical School, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campo dos Mártires da Pátria, 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniela De Vita
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(9), 941;
Received: 25 August 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 17 September 2021 / Published: 20 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Pharmacons: Biologically Active Plant Based Pharmaceuticals)
Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is an important industrial crop cultivated mainly to extract the dietary fiber inulin. However, chicory also contains bioactive compounds such as sesquiterpene lactones and certain polyphenols, which are currently discarded as waste. Plants are an important source of active pharmaceutical ingredients, including novel antimicrobials that are urgently needed due to the global spread of drug-resistant bacteria and fungi. Here, we tested different extracts of chicory for a range of bioactivities, including antimicrobial, antifungal and cytotoxicity assays. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were generally more potent in ethyl acetate extracts compared to water extracts, whereas supercritical fluid extracts showed the broadest range of bioactivities in our assays. Remarkably, the chicory supercritical fluid extract and a purified fraction thereof inhibited both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and ampicillin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa IBRS P001. Chicory extracts also showed higher antibiofilm activity against the yeast Candida albicans than standard sesquiterpene lactone compounds. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was generally low. Our results may thus lead to the development of novel antibacterial and antifungal preparations that are both effective and safe for human use. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicory; bioactivity; antimicrobial; antifungal; biofilm; cytotoxicity chicory; bioactivity; antimicrobial; antifungal; biofilm; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Häkkinen, S.T.; Soković, M.; Nohynek, L.; Ćirić, A.; Ivanov, M.; Stojković, D.; Tsitko, I.; Matos, M.; Baixinho, J.P.; Ivasiv, V.; Fernández, N.; Nunes dos Santos, C.; Oksman-Caldentey, K.-M. Chicory Extracts and Sesquiterpene Lactones Show Potent Activity against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 941.

AMA Style

Häkkinen ST, Soković M, Nohynek L, Ćirić A, Ivanov M, Stojković D, Tsitko I, Matos M, Baixinho JP, Ivasiv V, Fernández N, Nunes dos Santos C, Oksman-Caldentey K-M. Chicory Extracts and Sesquiterpene Lactones Show Potent Activity against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(9):941.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Häkkinen, Suvi T., Marina Soković, Liisa Nohynek, Ana Ćirić, Marija Ivanov, Dejan Stojković, Irina Tsitko, Melanie Matos, João P. Baixinho, Viktoriya Ivasiv, Naiara Fernández, Claudia Nunes dos Santos, and Kirsi-Marja Oksman-Caldentey. 2021. "Chicory Extracts and Sesquiterpene Lactones Show Potent Activity against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 9: 941.

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