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Article

Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoparticles for the Combination of Photodynamic Therapy and Immunotherapy

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan
2
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
3
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Serge Mordon
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(6), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060508
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 20 May 2021 / Accepted: 21 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy 2021)
Programmed death-ligand 1 protein (PD-L1) has been posited to have a major role in suppressing the immune system during pregnancy, tissue allografts, autoimmune disease and other diseases, such as hepatitis. Photodynamic therapy uses light and a photosensitizer to generate singlet oxygen, which causes cell death (phototoxicity). In this work, photosensitizers (such as merocyanine) were immobilized on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. One peptide sequence from PD-L1 was used as the template and imprinted onto poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) to generate magnetic composite nanoparticles for the targeting of PD-L1 on tumor cells. These nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering, high-performance liquid chromatography, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and superconducting quantum interference magnetometry. Natural killer-92 cells were added to these composite nanoparticles, which were then incubated with human hepatoma (HepG2) cells and illuminated with visible light for various periods. The viability and apoptosis pathway of HepG2 were examined using a cell counting kit-8 and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Finally, treatment with composite nanoparticles and irradiation of light was performed using an animal xenograft model. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotherapy; photodynamic therapy; programmed death-ligand 1 protein (PD-L1); magnetic nanoparticles; peptide-imprinted polymer immunotherapy; photodynamic therapy; programmed death-ligand 1 protein (PD-L1); magnetic nanoparticles; peptide-imprinted polymer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, M.-H.; Thomas, J.L.; Li, J.-A.; Chen, J.-R.; Wang, T.-L.; Lin, H.-Y. Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoparticles for the Combination of Photodynamic Therapy and Immunotherapy. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 508. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060508

AMA Style

Lee M-H, Thomas JL, Li J-A, Chen J-R, Wang T-L, Lin H-Y. Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoparticles for the Combination of Photodynamic Therapy and Immunotherapy. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(6):508. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060508

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Mei-Hwa, James L. Thomas, Jin-An Li, Jyun-Ren Chen, Tzong-Liu Wang, and Hung-Yin Lin. 2021. "Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoparticles for the Combination of Photodynamic Therapy and Immunotherapy" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 6: 508. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060508

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