Next Article in Journal
Development of Non-Ethoxypropanoic Acid Type Cryptochrome Inhibitors with Circadian Molecular Clock-Enhancing Activity by Bioisosteric Replacement
Next Article in Special Issue
Discovery of Selective Inhibitor Leads by Targeting an Allosteric Site in Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase
Previous Article in Journal
Clinical-Based vs. Model-Based Adaptive Dosing Strategy: Retrospective Comparison in Real-World mRCC Patients Treated with Sunitinib
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Anti-Tubercular Leads: A Concise Review
Review

Human Endogenous Retrovirus as Therapeutic Targets in Neurologic Disease

1
Escuela de Doctorado, Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, 46001 Valencia, Spain
2
School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, 46001 Valencia, Spain
3
Centro de Investigación Traslacional San Alberto Magno, Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, 46001 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde and Annie Mayence
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(6), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060495
Received: 8 April 2021 / Revised: 15 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are ancient retroviral DNA sequences established into germline. They contain regulatory elements and encoded proteins few of which may provide benefits to hosts when co-opted as cellular genes. Their tight regulation is mainly achieved by epigenetic mechanisms, which can be altered by environmental factors, e.g., viral infections, leading to HERV activation. The aberrant expression of HERVs associates with neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), inflammatory processes and neurodegeneration. This review summarizes the recent advances on the epigenetic mechanisms controlling HERV expression and the pathogenic effects triggered by HERV de-repression. This article ends by describing new, promising therapies, targeting HERV elements, one of which, temelimab, has completed phase II trials with encouraging results in treating MS. The information gathered here may turn helpful in the design of new strategies to unveil epigenetic failures behind HERV-triggered diseases, opening new possibilities for druggable targets and/or for extending the use of temelimab to treat other associated diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; epigenetics; HERV-K; HERV-W; monoclonal antibody; multiple sclerosis; neurodegeneration; temelimab amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; epigenetics; HERV-K; HERV-W; monoclonal antibody; multiple sclerosis; neurodegeneration; temelimab
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Giménez-Orenga, K.; Oltra, E. Human Endogenous Retrovirus as Therapeutic Targets in Neurologic Disease. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 495. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060495

AMA Style

Giménez-Orenga K, Oltra E. Human Endogenous Retrovirus as Therapeutic Targets in Neurologic Disease. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(6):495. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060495

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giménez-Orenga, Karen, and Elisa Oltra. 2021. "Human Endogenous Retrovirus as Therapeutic Targets in Neurologic Disease" Pharmaceuticals 14, no. 6: 495. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14060495

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop