Dimethyl Fumarate and Its Esters: A Drug with Broad Clinical Utility?
College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia
Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia
Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science, Victoria University, St Albans, VIC 3021, Australia
Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Basic Science Domain, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Microbiology, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia
School of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS 7005, Australia
Division of Developmental- and Neuropediatrics, University Children’s Hospital Basel, University of Basel, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(10), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13100306
Received: 27 September 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020 / Accepted: 12 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Agents for Neurological Disorders)
Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) are small molecules with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is the best characterised FAE and is approved and registered for the treatment of psoriasis and Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Psoriasis and RRMS share an immune-mediated aetiology, driven by severe inflammation and oxidative stress. DMF, as well as monomethyl fumarate and diroximel fumarate, are commonly prescribed first-line agents with favourable safety and efficacy profiles. The potential benefits of FAEs against other diseases that appear pathogenically different but share the pathologies of oxidative stress and inflammation are currently investigated.