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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Biopolymer Extracted from Anadenanthera colubrina (Red Angico Gum) Exerts Therapeutic Potential in Mice: Antidiarrheal Activity and Safety Assessment

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The Northeast Biotechnology Network (RENORBIO), Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, PI 64049-550, Brazil
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Biotechnology and Biodiversity Center Research, BIOTEC, Federal University of the Parnaíba Delta, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020, Brazil
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Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE 60430-275, Brazil
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Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE 60451-970, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13010017
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 18 January 2020
Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Griseb.) Altschul (Fabaceae family), commonly known as the red angico tree, is a medicinal plant found throughout Brazil’s semi-arid area. In this study, a chemical analysis was performed to investigate the antidiarrheal activity and safety profile of red angico gum (RAG), a biopolymer extracted from the trunk exudate of A. colubrina. Upon FT-IR spectroscopy, RAG showed bands in the regions of 1608 cm−1, 1368 cm−1, and 1029 cm−1, which relate to the vibration of O–H water molecules, deformation vibration of C-O bands, and vibration of the polysaccharide C-O band, respectively, all of which are relevant to glycosidic bonds. The peak molar mass of RAG was 1.89 × 105 g/mol, with the zeta potential indicating electronegativity. RAG demonstrated high yield and solubility with a low degree of impurity. Pre-treatment with RAG reduced the total diarrheal stool and enteropooling. RAG also enhanced Na+/K+-ATPase activity and reduced gastrointestinal transit, and thereby inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contractions. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) demonstrated that RAG can interact with GM1 receptors and can also reduce E. coli-induced diarrhea in vivo. Moreover, RAG did not induce any signs of toxicity in mice. These results suggest that RAG is a possible candidate for the treatment of diarrheal diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: polysaccharide; Fabaceae; diarrhea; cholera; Escherichia coli polysaccharide; Fabaceae; diarrhea; cholera; Escherichia coli
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Araújo, T.S.L.; de Oliveira, T.M.; de Sousa, N.A.; Souza, L.K.; Sousa, F.B.M.; de Oliveira, A.P.; Nicolau, L.A.D.; da Silva, A.A.V.; Araújo, A.R.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Vasconcelos, D.F.P.; de Jonge, H.R.; Souza, M.H.L.P.; Silva, D.A.; Paula, R.C.M.; Medeiros, J.V.R. Biopolymer Extracted from Anadenanthera colubrina (Red Angico Gum) Exerts Therapeutic Potential in Mice: Antidiarrheal Activity and Safety Assessment. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13, 17.

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