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Acute Toxicity of the Hydroethanolic Extract of the Flowers of Acmella oleracea L. in Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Behavioral and Histopathological Studies
Open AccessArticle

Libidibia ferrea (jucá), a Traditional Anti-Inflammatory: A Study of Acute Toxicity in Adult and Embryos Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

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Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitisheck, km 02, CEP 68902 280, Macapá, Amapá, Brazil
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Laboratory of Phytopharmaceutical Nanobiotechnology, Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitisheck, km 02, CEP 68902 280, Macapá, Amapá, Brazil
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Pharmaceutical Research Laboratory, Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitisheck, km 02, CEP 68902 280, Macapá, Amapá, Brazil
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Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitisheck, km 02, CEP 68902 280, Macapá, Amapá, Brazil
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Metabolomics Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-902, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(4), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12040175
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 9 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 30 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish as a Powerful Tool for Drug Discovery)
The plant species Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) LP Queiroz var. ferrea basionym of Caesalpinia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul.) is used in various regions of Brazil in folk medicine in the treatment of several health problems, especially in acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Most of the preparations employed are alcoholic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of fruits of Libidibia ferrea (EHEFLf) in zebrafish, emphasizing the possible changes in the organic-cellular level of the gills, liver, kidneys, and intestine and on embryos. The result obtained by LC-M/MS from EHEFLf indicated a high concentration of possible polyhydroxylated substances. EHEFLf, at a dose of 2 g/kg orally, produced non-significant alterations of the analyzed organs. However, for embryos, the treatment with different concentrations demonstrated heart toxicity that was concentration-dependent. There is no evidence of a correlation of the observed effects with the phytochemical composition, and considering the species of animal used, it can be suggested that the oral use of L. ferrea hydroethanolic extract has an acceptable degree of safety for use as an oral medicinal product. and embryo results have shown significant affinity to the heart; however, it is perceived to be related to the concentrations used.
Keywords: Libidibia ferrea; toxicity; zebrafish; histopathology; embryos Libidibia ferrea; toxicity; zebrafish; histopathology; embryos
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Ferreira, D.Q.; Ferraz, T.O.; Araújo, R.S.; Cruz, R.A.S.; Fernandes, C.P.; Souza, G.C.; Ortiz, B.L.S.; Sarquis, R.S.F.R.; Miranda, J.C.M.M.; Garrett, R.; Carvalho, J.C.T.; Oliveira, A.E.M.F.M. Libidibia ferrea (jucá), a Traditional Anti-Inflammatory: A Study of Acute Toxicity in Adult and Embryos Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 175.

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