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Therapeutic Potential of Kappa Opioid Agonists

Drug Discovery & Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 280 Calhoun Street, QF204, Charleston, SC 29424-2303, USA
College of Medicine, 173 Ashley Ave., Charleston, SC 29424-2303, USA
College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 500 W 12th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210-9998, USA
JT Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 300 West Coleman Blvd., Suite 203, Mount Pleasant, SC 29464-2303, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(2), 95;
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 12 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
PDF [470 KB, uploaded 20 June 2019]


Many original research articles have been published that describe findings and outline areas for the development of kappa-opioid agonists (KOAs) as novel drugs; however, a single review article that summarizes the broad potential for KOAs in drug development does not exist. It is well-established that KOAs demonstrate efficacy in pain attenuation; however, KOAs also have proven to be beneficial in treating a variety of novel but often overlapping conditions including cardiovascular disease, pruritus, nausea, inflammatory diseases, spinal anesthesia, stroke, hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, multiple sclerosis, addiction, and post-traumatic cartilage degeneration. This article summarizes key findings of KOAs and discusses the untapped therapeutic potential of KOAs in the treatment of many human diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: therapeutic; potential; indications therapeutic; potential; indications

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Beck, T.C.; Hapstack, M.A.; Beck, K.R.; Dix, T.A. Therapeutic Potential of Kappa Opioid Agonists. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 95.

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