Next Article in Journal
Iron in Lung Pathology
Previous Article in Journal
Conformation and Cross-Protection in Group B Streptococcus Serotype III and Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 14: A Molecular Modeling Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Juvenile Arthritis Patients Suffering from Chronic Inflammation Have Increased Activity of Both IDO and GTP-CH1 Pathways But Decreased BH4 Efficacy: Implications for Well-Being, Including Fatigue, Cognitive Impairment, Anxiety, and Depression
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Inflammation and Depression: A Nervous Plea for Psychiatry to Not Become Immune to Interpretation

Aquitaine Institute for Integrative and Cognitive Neuroscience (INCIA) UMR CNRS 5287, University of Bordeaux, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12010029
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
  |  
PDF [347 KB, uploaded 15 February 2019]

Abstract

The possibility that inflammation plays a causal role in major depression is an important claim in the emerging field of immunopsychiatry and has generated hope for new treatments. The aims of the present review are first to provide some historical background and to consider the evidence in favor of the claim that inflammation is causally involved in major depression. The second part discusses some of the possibilities allowed for by the use of broad ‘umbrella’ concepts, such as inflammation and stress, in terms of proposing new working hypotheses and potential mechanisms. The third part reviews proposed biomarkers of inflammation and depression and the final part addresses how elements discussed in the preceding sections are used in immunopsychiatry. The ‘umbrella’ concepts of inflammation and stress, as well as insufficiently-met criteria based inferences and reverse inferences are being used to some extent in immunopsychiatry. The field is therefore encouraged to specify concepts and constructs, as well as to consider potential alternative interpretations and explanations for findings obtained. The hope is that pointing out some of the potential problems will allow for a clearer picture of immunopsychiatry’s current strengths and limitations and help the field mature. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; inflammation; immunopsychiatry; interleukin; psychoneuroimmunology; stress depression; inflammation; immunopsychiatry; interleukin; psychoneuroimmunology; stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Konsman, J.P. Inflammation and Depression: A Nervous Plea for Psychiatry to Not Become Immune to Interpretation. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 29.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pharmaceuticals EISSN 1424-8247 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top