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Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12010002

Radiolabelled Aptamers for Theranostic Treatment of Cancer

1
School of Medicine Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3128, Australia
2
Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia
3
Centre for Molecular and Medical Research, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3128, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 24 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamer-Based Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

Cancer has a high incidence and mortality rate worldwide, which continues to grow as millions of people are diagnosed annually. Metastatic disease caused by cancer is largely responsible for the mortality rates, thus early detection of metastatic tumours can improve prognosis. However, a large number of patients will also present with micrometastasis tumours which are often missed, as conventional medical imaging modalities are unable to detect micrometastases due to the lack of specificity and sensitivity. Recent advances in radiochemistry and the development of nucleic acid based targeting molecules, have led to the development of novel agents for use in cancer diagnostics. Monoclonal antibodies may also be used, however, they have inherent issues, such as toxicity, cost, unspecified binding and their clinical use can be controversial. Aptamers are a class of single-stranded RNA or DNA ligands with high specificity, binding affinity and selectivity for a target, which makes them promising for molecular biomarker imaging. Aptamers are presented as being a superior choice over antibodies because of high binding affinity and pH stability, amongst other factors. A number of aptamers directed to cancer cell markers (breast, lung, colon, glioblastoma, melanoma) have been radiolabelled and characterised to date. Further work is ongoing to develop these for clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: aptamers; cancer; chelating agents; diagnostics; EpCAM; molecular imaging; radiolabel; targeted imaging; theranostics; therapeutics aptamers; cancer; chelating agents; diagnostics; EpCAM; molecular imaging; radiolabel; targeted imaging; theranostics; therapeutics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Khalid, U.; Vi, C.; Henri, J.; Macdonald, J.; Eu, P.; Mandarano, G.; Shigdar, S. Radiolabelled Aptamers for Theranostic Treatment of Cancer. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 2.

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