Utilization of 5G Technologies in IoT Applications: Current Limitations by Interference and Network Optimization Difficulties—A Review
2. Related Work
- IoT Service: This parameters lists the various IoT services that are considered in the comparison.
- Reliability: This metric represents the reliability of 5G networks when used to support the respective IoT service. Reliability is a measure of the ability of the network to provide consistent and dependable service. The values in this column range from low to high.
- Multiple devices operate: This metric indicates whether the IoT service can operate with multiple devices. This is an important factor to consider since many IoT services involve the connection of multiple devices, and the network needs to support the simultaneous communication of these devices.
- Latency: This parameter measures the amount of delay or lag time in transmitting data between the IoT devices and the network. Latency is an important metric to consider for real-time IoT services, such as connected vehicles and healthcare monitoring. The values in this column range from low to ultra-low.
- Interference management techniques: This parameter lists the various techniques that can be used to manage interference in the network. Interference management is crucial to maintain high performance in the presence of other devices and networks that may use the same frequency bands. The techniques listed in this column include dynamic frequency selection, channel hopping, beamforming, coordinated multi-point transmission, dynamic power control, interference avoidance, MIMO (multiple-input, multiple-output) , cognitive radio, massive MIMO, and interference alignment.
- Energy consumption: This metric indicates the amount of energy consumed by the IoT devices and the network. Energy consumption is an important consideration for IoT services, especially for those that operate in remote locations or rely on battery-powered devices. The values in this column range from low to high.
|IoT Service||Reliability||Multiple Devices||Latency||Interference Management||Energy Consumption|
|Smart home automation ||High||Yes||Low||Dynamic frequency selection||Low|
|Smart agriculture ||Medium||Yes||Medium||Channel hopping||High|
|Industrial IoT ||High||Yes||Low||Beamforming||Medium|
|Connected vehicles ||High||Yes||Ultra-low||Coordinated multi-point transmission||High|
|Healthcare monitoring ||High||Yes||Low||Dynamic power control||Low|
|Smart cities ||High||Yes||Low||Interference avoidance||High|
|Environmental monitoring ||Medium||Yes||Low||MIMO||Low|
|Smart grid management ||High||Yes||Low||Cognitive radio||High|
|Augmented reality ||High||No||Ultra-low||Massive MIMO||High|
|Drones ||High||Yes||Ultra-low||Interference alignment||Medium|
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. 5G Implementation Requirements
- Millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies for higher bandwidth and faster data rates.
- Massive MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) technology for increasing spatial streams and improving the wireless channel’s efficiency.
- Beamforming to focus the radio signal towards a specific device, increasing signal strength and reducing interference.
- Network slicing for creating dedicated virtual networks to meet the specific requirements of different applications, improving network performance and security.
- Edge computing for real-time processing and analysis of data at the edge of the network, reducing latency and improving the performance of time-sensitive applications.
- Low latency for real-time communication and response, aiming to achieve a latency of less than 1 millisecond.
- High reliability for mission-critical applications, ensuring high availability and low downtime.
- Full duplex communication for simultaneous transmission and reception of data, improving efficiency, capacity, and reducing latency.
3.2. Evolution of Wireless Networks
3.3. Evolution of IoT
3.4. Wireless Communication Technologies for IoT and Cloud-Based Solutions
- Wi-Fi AdHoc: With the standard of IEEE 802.11, Wi-Fi technology turned into the first technology to create devices connected to the network. Allowing to create news architectures such as Wi-Fi AdHoc is a decentralized type of wireless network because each node participates in routing by forwarding data to other nodes . These nodes can be IoT devices and are very helpful in applications where it is needed to have many devices connected.
- Zigbee: The most popular industry wireless mesh networking standard for connecting sensors, instrumentation, and control systems. Zigbee implements communication in a personal wireless area network, providing low power consumption and interoperating multi-vendor, commonly used in home automation, low-power consumption sensors, HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) control, etc. .
- Z-Wave: A wireless protocol evolved by Zensys and confirmed by the Z-Wave Alliance for automation apparatuses for home and commercial environments. This protocol allows transmitting short messages with minimum noise and uses a Mesh network configuration .
- LoRaWAN: A low-power, wide-area networking protocol designed to connect battery wirelessly operated ‘things’ to the internet in regional, national, or global networks. It targets IoT requirements, such as bi-directional communication, end-to-end security, mobility, and localization services. According to work cited in , LoRa has the most features in terms of IoT, such as low power consumption, long-range communication, etc. Furthermore, the paper tested communication in urban and forest areas, showing that LoRaWAN can transmit data up to 2.1 km in urban areas.
- SigFox: SigFox is a network operator dedicated to the Internet of Things. The SigFox network uses the ultra-narrow band, allowing devices to communicate with low power on a wide area .
- Cloud Computing: Cloud computing is a term used to describe both a platform and a type of application. One of the essential features of cloud computing is the capability to assign dynamic resources to the network, being an important key to providing scalable solutions and avoiding high costs. The interference plays an important role when connecting devices since the signal quality decrease, which means the modulation decreases and the bits per error increases. That is a problem if we are trying to offer large bandwidths and low latency in each data transmission . We must consider different factors to provide a great QoS, like the weather, buildings, hardware, software resources, etc. In the IoT context, the buildings and distances create the main interferences. For that reason, technologies such as Zigbee, SigFox, LoRaWAN, and Z-wave play a vital role in connecting devices.
- WiGig: WiGig, also known as 802.11ay, is a wireless communication technology that operates on the 60 GHz frequency band . It was developed as an extension of the Wi-Fi standard to provide high-speed, short-range wireless communication, primarily for applications that require high bandwidth, such as virtual reality, high-definition video streaming, and gaming. WiGig supports multi-gigabit data transfer rates, with theoretical speeds of up to 176 Gbps, which is much faster than the previous Wi-Fi standards . It achieves this speed through the use of wider bandwidth and advanced modulation techniques, such as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Another notable feature of WiGig is its low latency, making it ideal for applications that require real-time data transfer, such as gaming and virtual reality . It also supports multiple-input, multiple-output technology, which enables multiple antennas to transmit and receive data simultaneously, improving the overall performance and efficiency of the network. In the context of 5G networks, WiGig can be used as a complementary technology to provide high-speed local area network (LAN) connections for mobile devices and IoT devices. The 60 GHz frequency band has a limited range, but it can support high data rates over short distances, making it suitable for applications, such as augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR), wireless HD video streaming, and cloud gaming . In addition, WiGig can be used as a backhaul technology for small cells in 5G networks, enabling high-speed data transfers between small cells and the core network. This can help improve the performance and capacity of 5G networks, especially in densely populated urban areas where there is high demand for data services. Regarding IoT services, WiGig can enable high-speed local area connections between IoT devices, allowing them to share data quickly and efficiently. This can be especially useful for applications, such as smart homes, where multiple IoT devices need to communicate with each other in real time.
3.5. 5G Applications
- Entertainment services: Video-on-demand services are currently one of the most utilized services on the internet. These services demand high-speed connections, and with rising trends to utilize higher resolution devices, 5G plays a vital role in providing optimal user experience so that they can consume their content without interruption.
- General mobile networks: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in recent years, teleworking has seen an immense rise in all sectors globally. This means workers must be able to respond to video or voice calls at any given time, requiring improved downlink and uplink speeds. These requirements, complemented with the higher reliability aspects of 5G, mean that this implementation will improve communications in any given context, especially for work-related tasks.
- Internet of Things: IoT is one of the trendiest topics around the electronics ecosystem, due to its nature to provide automation to simple or very complex topics. Even though most IoT devices currently utilize 3G or 4G-LTE technologies due to their low requirements for data connectivity, a new generation of IoT devices requires higher throughput rates. These requirements are on the limits of the current generation of wireless technologies, which makes 5G an interesting contestant to solve these requirements. The most popular IoT applications today involve Smart Homes, industries, or farming, which generally require low amounts of wireless capabilities because the devices have low microprocessing power due to the nature of the technology itself. However, new trends, such as Smart Cities or IoV (Internet of Vehicles), require much greater throughput to function correctly and offer an optimal user experience. These types of solutions require capabilities that are only offered by 5G. IoT data are visioned to increase in data provided per area by 1000 times  which means IoT applications will be part of our everyday lives. The current data are provided mainly by sensors, but more complex devices will mean that data will be gathered from additional sources. This exponential growth in data consumption will also need to be stored in scalable data storages, and this is where cloud computing comes in. Some of the most famous architectural trends of IoT devices follow three principles:
- Hardware: All sensor nodes that gather data, their communication methods, and the hardware interface with the user.
- Middleware: The layer in charge of storing and analyzing the data and monitoring the devices.
- Presentation layer: Commonly called the front end, this presents visualization tools better to understand our devices’ current state and behavior.
- 5G technologies can impact the hardware and middleware layer. As the technology is more energy efficient, the devices do not need massive antennas, which can lead to increased consumption. At the middleware layer, as devices can communicate more data in a given period, this layer will benefit from extra data to improve any statistical or machine learning model.
3.6. 5G Technologies
- Massive MIMO: This technology is responsible for sending and receiving multiple signals simultaneously, utilizing the same radio channel. While other technologies, such as Wi-Fi or 4G-LTE, have utilized this technology, massive MIMO performs best when paired with 5G technologies. This technology uses extra antennas to move energy into smaller regions of space, which means spectral efficiency and coverage are improved .
- NOMA: Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access: A radio access technology that plays a vital role in 5G applications . This technology offers several benefits, such as low latency and massive high-speed connectivity. Code domain NOMA is commonly paired with mMIMO, drastically improving spectral efficiency . Power domain NOMA is commonly utilized with MIMO, beamforming, and even cooperative communications, being one of the most flexible technologies utilized in 5G implementations.
- Millimeter Wave: This technology uses a frequency band between 30 GHz and 300 GHz and derives its name from the 1 to 10 mm waves utilized by the technology. Utilized commonly in radar applications, this technology is being paired with 5G to improve spectrum bandwidth and increase spectrum utilizations. The main benefit of pairing this technology with 5G is the spectrum freedom linked to mmWave. Standard technologies, such as GPS, 4G, and satellite connections, utilize the 1 GHz to 6 GHz spectrum, which is becoming very crowded . Because mmWave is new and has a massive spectral range, 5G provides an improved user experience through this combination.
- Machine Learning Techniques: Supervised and unsupervised models are being implemented in 5G technologies to improve overall network capacities, predict energy consumption, and optimize tracking technologies such as beamforming. In the supervised category, some 5G networks utilize Linear Regression Algorithms to predict the scheduling of nodes . Other supervised models utilize Deep Neural Networks to predict beamforming vectors. Then, unsupervised learning models are used to improve handover selection and reduce interruption of services, as well as they can reduce latency by clustering fog nodes.
- Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV): Being the most innovative proposal, current 5G researchers are utilizing UAVs to improve network coverage. These UAVs will assist the terrestrial network by serving as beacons. The high altitude of these planes could solve many interference problems and even replace entirely terrestrial cellular networks . UAVs, commonly known as drones, have become increasingly popular for both commercial and personal use. With the advent of 5G networks and IoT, UAVs can now be equipped with a wide range of sensors and devices that can transmit real-time data to ground stations for analysis and decision making . There are several potential implementations of UAVs in the context of 5G and IoT. One such implementation is in the area of precision agriculture. UAVs can be used to gather data on crop growth, soil conditions, and other factors that affect agricultural production. These data can be transmitted in real time to a ground station for analysis and used to optimize planting, fertilization, and irrigation schedules . 5G networks and IoT sensors can provide the necessary bandwidth and low latency for this type of application. Another potential application of UAVs in the context of 5G and IoT is in industrial inspection and maintenance. UAVs equipped with cameras and other sensors can be used to inspect and monitor equipment and infrastructure such as power lines and wind turbines. Real-time data transmission via 5G networks can enable remote monitoring and control of these systems, improving their reliability and reducing maintenance costs . UAVs can also be used for emergency response and disaster management. In the event of a natural disaster, such as a hurricane or earthquake, UAVs can be deployed to assess damage and provide real-time information to first responders. The data collected can be transmitted via 5G networks to emergency management centers for analysis and decision making. UAVs can be used for surveillance and security purposes. In public safety applications, UAVs can be used to monitor crowd movements and gather intelligence on potential threats. In private security applications, UAVs can be used to patrol and monitor facilities for intruders or other security threats. The combination of UAVs with 5G networks and IoT sensors can enable a wide range of applications in various industries. With the potential to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance safety, it is likely that we will see an increase in the adoption of UAVs in the coming years.
3.7. 5G Problems
- Technical complications related to interference, including sensitivity to mild rain in urban areas.
- Need for extensive and costly architectures to offer full coverage and optimal user experience, which may lead providers to focus mainly on urban areas, leaving rural areas unattended.
- Ethical and social implications related to the inability to offer improved connections to people in poor conditions due to the high cost of 5G architectures and the lack of coverage in rural areas.
- Security implications arising from the trend of connecting vehicles to the internet, which could result in remote kidnappings by hackers.
3.8. Coexistence of 5G Networks and IoT Applications
3.9. Interference and Network Optimization Difficulties
- Adjacent channel interference: Adjacent channel interference is a problem that occurs in many devices and many frequency ranges. This occurs when an adjacent frequency or the adjacent channel of the one used by our device overlaps. This problem occurs in 5G, as in other mobile technologies. This type of interference is mainly caused, as stated in , by an imperfection in the filters, where they cannot filter the desired signal correctly. These imperfections result in nearby frequencies passing into the passband. In turn, this occurs because the amplifiers are not linear.
- Intra-cell and inter-cell interference: Inter-cell interference is one of the most significant causes of network performance degradation. This occurs when two users from neighboring cells attempt to use the same frequency band simultaneously. This occurs, as said in , because of resource limitation within the network, due to the frequency reuse factor. In the same way, inter-cell interference is identified when a Base Station connects directly in the close range of another BS, and that is when there is a simultaneous transmission in that reuse. A distortion appears by the interference that gives the user and other equipment in the same cell.
- Intra-Channel and Inter-Channel interference: Inter-channel interference usually occurs when there is a low power within the macro-cell network. Then, when communicating, the information is forwarded to the nearest base station. When the transmission is made, it is completed through fast switching and restricts delays and propagation losses. However, this produces intra-channel interference that affects the valuable signal. On the other hand, inter-channel interference occurs due to the physical proximity of the devices when two separate frequency bands cause interference with each other. As these devices operate in close range, the transmitter of a high-power signal interferes with the receiver of a weak signal. It is important to emphasize that 5G IoT networks or devices with channels in the MHz range are susceptible to this type of interference due to the proximity and number of nearby devices. One way to mitigate this type of interference is through spatial modulation via MIMO .
- Inter-Symbol Interference: Inter-symbol interference occurs when one or more symbols interfere with other symbols. It is caused by phase or amplitude dispersion in the channel, resulting in signal distortion. This can be seen in OFDMA, where multipath propagation occurs. One study  exposed how this type of interference can be an excellent challenge for network systems and should be sought to improve the efficiency of the bandwidth while seeking alternatives in the modulation. This is in order to counteract this type of interference.
- Inter-numerology interference: Multiple numerology is a model to provide flexibility for devices in different services. For these numerologies, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 kHz channels are used. They aim to improve performance and significant bandwidth. As stated in , the authors introduce a non-orthogonality in the system, causing difficulties for symbol alignment in the time domain. When sampling at the same frequency, numerology tends to align differently, making synchronization within the frame difficult. This is known as interference between numerologies.
- Cross-Link Interference: This interference occurs when signals are transmitted to neighboring cells in different directions simultaneously, either in time frequency or arbitrarily overlapping resources. As mentioned in , there are different types of interference and different ways in which it occurs. For example, the Base Station receives interference from user equipment devices in adjacent cells, or a downlink user equipment receives interference from a second database.
- Inter Beam Interference: With the high demand for technological services, the aim has been to improve spectral efficiency and network performance. In trade-offs for networks such as 5G, where the quality and capacity must be high, the solution of incorporating a multi-beam antenna system such as mMIMO was sought, as explored in detail in . This technique identifies the best route to providing optimal performance to a user. This approach helps compensate for transmission attenuation losses, especially in millimeter-wave communication. In this case, the base station generates multiple narrow beams of mainly RF energy in all directions of the coverage area. This causes a spatial division of multiple beams, introducing interference. Adjacent beams cause this interference from the same cell or a neighboring cell.
- Multi-user Interference: Multi-user interference is due to the industry’s quest for higher data rates in applications and the dramatic increase in subscribers to wireless communications . The techniques used for this type of technology are given by MU-MIMO, a 5G generation technique that helps increase the capacity and performance of wireless broadcasting systems. Multi-user interference occurs when several users try to transmit their information requests at the same time.
3.9.2. Interference in 5G
- Interference in Hetnets: Hetnets are 5G heterogeneous networks. They aim to provide wireless coverage for mobile subscribers and indoor and outdoor applications. Hetnets are multi-tier network systems that deploy small cells in populated areas. These cells are characterized by having a short range and low power consumption. This network comprises access points, which allow high density, improvements in network flexibility, and so on . Due to the infrastructure and locations for deploying this type of network, they are prone to different types of interference, such as intra-cell, inter-cell, and adjacency channels. This type of problem is due to its poor systematization and organization in its network design. There are types of interference within heterogeneous networks due to their infrastructure or grouping depending on the need to be met. The first interference that appears is Co-tier interference. This type of interference appears mostly in femtocells, where there is much demand for higher data rates. This environment allows coverage, such as low-power radio access points, giving various services at home . This type of interference is observed when multiple users reside in the same network tier, where transmission occurs over adjacent cells within the femtocell. Similar to co-tier, cross-tier interference can appear. The difference is that the co-tier is the inter-cell interference, and the cross-tier is the interference between the femtocell and macro-cells, considering that the femtocell is inside the macro-cell . Last but not least, in , channel control interference says that one of the most critical factors for channel control is the physical control format indicator channel. This channel carries scheduling and synchronization information for the uplink and downlink link data channels. As the transport is by physical means, this will induce interference.
- Interference in D2D: With the introduction of 5G, the best wireless systems have constantly sought a solution that allows the best quality of communication. Device-to-device networks are one of the candidates to be the future of 5G networks. Direct contact between two mobiles increases efficiency in the spectrum. However, it always brings some challenges, in this case dealing with interference. As discussed in the description of Hetnets above, these use a high connectivity capacity thanks to their structure with macro-cell and femtocell. They allow good performance . With the introduction of D2D, a cellular network is sought that significantly improves spectral efficiency and performance. However, some challenges are the need for more security that this type of technology presents and interference. On the interference side, they appear related to inter-cell interference. Furthermore, intra-cell may be related to adjacent frequency. Furthermore, we must remember that there are types of interference typical of D2D nodes, D2D-to-CU interference, and inter-D2D node interference, among others.
- Interference in IoT and Smart Cities: We cannot limit our minds to just one application when discussing the Internet of things. However, everything from D2D devices and V2X to smart homes or buildings is part of it. The conception of IoT with 5G has evolved in large and small ecosystems. IoT in some applications is used over the unlicensed ISM band, which is used for various physical devices to properly leverage the spectrum to adhere to the conditions and regulations of short radio communication. The Internet of Things has been seen as the other great leap in the evolution of the Internet. With this in mind, developing smart cities will help create a more sustainable and cost-efficient ecosystem . The combination of technologies such as 5G, IoT, and others will enable big data, offering complex services to the community, adding members in smart cities, and ensuring compatibility. However, it should be noted that interference must be characterized. When talking about smart cities using Wi-Fi because of the use of the millimeter band, physical obstacles such as walls are things to keep in mind, in addition to channel overlapping and inter-carrier interference .
3.9.3. Optimization Challenges in 5G Networks
4. Results and Discussions
- Interference: The type of interference that affects 5G networks and IoT services.
- Frequency: The frequency range in which the interference occurs.
- Bandwidth: The bandwidth of the interference.
- Power: The power level of the interference.
- Impact: The effect of the interference on 5G networks and IoT services.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Security||5G networks are vulnerable to various security threats, such as DDoS attacks, identity theft, and man-in-the-middle attacks.||IoT devices are susceptible to security breaches due to poor encryption, weak passwords, and outdated firmware.|
|Latency||5G networks have lower latency, which can be a problem for certain IoT applications that require real-time response.||IoT services may suffer from latency due to network congestion, distance from the server, and the number of devices connected to the network.|
|Interference||5G networks can experience interference from other wireless devices, which can disrupt the transmission of data.||IoT services may also suffer from interference due to environmental factors, such as obstacles and interference from other wireless devices.|
|Cost||The cost of 5G infrastructure and services may be prohibitively high for many IoT applications, particularly those that require large-scale deployment.||IoT services may also be expensive to deploy and maintain, particularly if they require high bandwidth or specialized hardware.|
|Compatibility||Some IoT devices may not be compatible with 5G networks, which can limit their usefulness in certain applications.||IoT services may also be limited by compatibility issues, particularly if they rely on proprietary hardware or software.|
|Service||Wireless Technology||Algorithms Used||Coexistence of Services||Applications and System Description|
|5G NR ||NR-U||NOMA||Coexisting with 4G|
|Ultra-reliable and low-latency communications for industrial automation and autonomous vehicles|
|5G-V2X ||PC5||OFDMA||Coexisting with 4G and Wi-Fi||Vehicle-to-everything communications for traffic management and safety|
|5G mMTC ||NR-MTC||NOMA||Coexisting with 4G and Wi-Fi||Massive machine-type communications for smart cities and agriculture|
|5G-UHD ||NR-U||OFDMA||Coexisting with 4G and Wi-Fi||Ultra-high-definition video communications and virtual reality|
|5G-IoT ||NR-MTC||NOMA||Coexisting with 4G and Wi-Fi||Internet of things communications for smart homes and wearables|
|5G-eMBB ||NR-eMBB||OFDMA||Coexisting with 4G and Wi-Fi||Enhanced mobile broadband for high-speed data transfer and streaming|
|5G-URLLC ||NR-URLLC||NOMA||Coexisting with 4G and Wi-Fi||Ultra-reliable and low-latency communications for mission-critical applications|
|5G-mIoT ||NR-mIoT||NOMA||Coexisting with 4G and Wi-Fi||Massive IoT communications for smart cities and agriculture|
|5G-gNB ||NR-gNB||OFDMA||Coexisting with 4G and Wi-Fi||Gigabit-class communications for high-speed data transfer and streaming|
|5G-Slicing ||NR-Slicing||NOMA||Coexisting with 4G and Wi-Fi||Network slicing for multiple services and applications|
|Interference from other devices||Reduced||Increased||Reduced||Reduced||Reduced||Reduced|
|Interference from other wireless networks||Reduced||Increased||Reduced||Reduced||Reduced||Reduced|
|Year||Technology||Impact in IoT|
|2000||3G allows devices to connect to the internet since 3G enables mobile and wireless internet connections.||With internet connections, electronic|
devices start transmitting data through
the internet, the first step to developing
|2008||4G enables cloud|
computing technology and
transmits information with
the IP protocol. In addition,
4G increased the bandwidth
of each transmission.
|The data transmission through IP protocol enables an easy communication method with electronic devices. The cloud enables a way to develop more affordable solutions. Furthermore, the internet connection cost decreases because 4G delivers a cheap way to transmit data as IP protocols manage the data more efficiently. This generation is the most important in an IoT context because the industry has all the resources to connect devices to the cloud.|
|2019||With 5G, an essential|
feature is the beam width,
an important key in the IoT
|If we have more bandwidth, we can provide better solutions, such as real-time monitoring systems. In our society, these solutions are vital if we want to automate processes. For this reason, 5G plays an essential role in the IoT context because the industry is trying to automate all its processes.|
|Standard||WCDMA, CDMA2000||OFDMA, MC-CDMA||CDMA, BDMA|
|Data rate||2 Mbps||2 Mbps–1 Gbps||1 Gbps and higher|
|Frequency||1.8–2.5 GHz||2–8 GHz||3–300 GHz|
|Core type network||Packet network||All IP network||IP network and 5G-NI|
|Bandwidth||More bandwidth to supply applications with high speed.|
|AI||Artificial intelligence can analyze all the data generated by the IoT devices to take accurate decisions.|
|Real-time monitoring and management||The capability to monitor and manage electronic devices remotely.|
|Swarm intelligence||Each IoT device can be a node, and working with other nodes, can work as a swarm intelligence.|
|QoS||5G can provide a better QoS in IoT connections.|
|Low Latency||5G reduces the latency, which means that the IoT devices can take immediate decisions.|
|Cloud computing||5G can provide better connections to the cloud, which means each IoT device can use all the resources of the cloud.|
|This occurs when the frequency channel of|
our device is overlapped.
|If we do not have good bandpass filters, there will be interference from nearby frequencies. In 5G devices, this can have a significant impact.|
|Inter-cell interference occurs when two users in neighboring cells attempt to use the same frequency simultaneously. Intra-cell interference occurs when there is a simultaneous short-range transmission by two BSs, with distortion from the user and the other equipment in the same cell.||This type of interference can severely damage 5G|
networks because for bases or architectures
where there are micro- or macro-cells, the power
of neighboring signals in both uplink and
downlink transmission by multiple users can
interfere with each other .
|Intra-channel interference occurs when|
there is little power within the macro
|Inter-channel interference occurs due to the proximity of devices when two separate frequencies cause interference. As they operate at short range, the transmitter of a high-power signal causes interference; interference can also be due to the exploration of hetnets with OFDM. There are ICI reduction solutions with reverse frequency allocation (RFA) employed, which is a proactive interference.|
|This type of interference occurs when one|
or more symbols interfere with other
|It is caused by phase or amplitude dispersion of the channel, which results in signal distortion. This can be clearly seen in OFDMA, which causes multipath propagation and impacts bandwidth efficiency.|
|Occurs when using the numerology system|
for greater flexibility and does not allow
the alignment in the time domain to be
perfect. These misalignments or
imperfections are known as
|In the search for higher performance and significant bandwidth, using numerology, can cause interference by having networks with many devices sending significant amounts of information, which makes this type of interference more pronounced, affecting the network’s performance.|
|This type of interference occurs when a transmission is made to a neighboring cell in different directions simultaneously, either by arbitrarily overlapping resources or by time frequency.||Cross-link interference can affect 5G networks|
due to the amount of BS required, since incorrect
hopping can cause performance failures.
|This occurs when using MIMO technology,|
as this type of array sends RF energy in all
directions, with the spatial division of the
multiple beams causing interference.
Adjacent beams cause this either by the
same cell or by neighboring cells.
|It causes interference in applications where MIMO antenna technology is introduced due to the same usage. When looking for better spectral efficiency and improvements in network performance, interference from adjacent beams within the same cell or multiple MIMO arrays may negatively influence their neighbors.|
|This occurs when, in MU-MIMO, multiple|
users try to transmit information
|Considering that in 5G, performance and information forwarding improvements are sought, when switching to MU-MIMO, uncoordinated cells encounter more significant problems during user management.|
|This occurs when the frequency channel of|
the device is overlapped.
|If we do not have good bandpass filters, there will be interference from nearby frequencies. In 5G devices, this can have a significant impact.|
|Interference Type||Description||Impact on 5G Networks (✔ yes, × is no|
|Adjacent Channel||Frequency channel overlap||✔|
|Intra-cell and inter-cell||Simultaneous transmission in neighboring cells||×|
|Intra-Channel and inter-Channel||Low power in the macro network cell||✔|
|Inter-Symbol||Interference between symbols||×|
|Inter-Carrier||Signal loss due to subcarrier offset||×|
|Inter-Numerology||Misalignments in the numerology system||×|
|Cross-Link||Overlapping transmissions to neighboring cells||×|
|Inter-Beam||Interference from adjacent beams in MIMO||×|
|Multi-User||Simultaneous transmission from multiple users||×|
|Integrating 5G technologies with IoT solutions will allow for more cost-effective solutions when 5G technologies reach the mainstream market. Optimizing processes with the data gathered by the devices will allow for data-driven decision making, allowing private or public entities to make better decisions.|
|By providing relevant information and real-time control over public infrastructure, citizens will be positively impacted by reduced traffic, improved security, and new economic development opportunities fueled by the digitalization era.|
|Having closer control over industrial processes and real-time analytics regarding relevant environmental properties, implementing IoT solutions with 5G technologies can be the next step in becoming a more environmentally friendly society.|
|While 5G and IoT efforts can improve the quality of life of those cities that can afford it, they currently do not offer cost-effective solutions for regions with less access to technological services.|
|Having real-time information on assets, people, and any living or non-living organism in a region can seriously threaten privacy violations. Political or social movements can negatively use sensible data related to citizens to perform any action.|
|Features||Advantages||Research Challenges||Key Requirements||Interoperability|
|Network slicing||Low latency||Standardization|
|Security||High reliability||Integration with existing systems|
|Scalability||Massive machine-type communication||Compatibility with different technologies|
|Resource allocation||Energy efficiency||Interoperability with cloud services|
|Edge intelligence||Resource management||Security|
|Edge analytics||QoS management||Integration with network slicing|
|High data rates||Spectrum management||Low power consumption||Compatibility with legacy systems|
|Multi-connectivity||Interference management||Network densification|
|mmWave communications||Coverage||Integration with edge computing|
|Orchestration||Service level agreements||Interoperability between slices|
|QoS management||Security||Integration with existing networks|
|Developing efficient and scalable DSA (Dynamic Spectrum Access) and cooperative sensing algorithms|
|Secure communication, protecting against attacks||Developing lightweight|
|Longer battery life,|
|Developing energy-efficient algorithms for resource allocation and power management|
|Developing efficient network slicing and virtualization techniques for massive IoT deployments|
|Reduced communication delay, improved application performance||Developing low-latency|
edge computing and
network architecture for
|Atmospheric Absorption||24–40 GHz||Narrowband||Low||Attenuation|||
|Free Space Path Loss||All||All||Low||Attenuation|||
|Rain Fade||10–100 GHz||Wideband||High||Attenuation|||
|Multipath Fading||All||All||Low||Intersymbol Interference|||
|Co-Channel Interference||All||All||High||Reduced Signal Quality|||
|Adjacent Channel Interference||All||All||High||Reduced Signal Quality|||
|Interference from Other Radios||All||All||High||Reduced Signal Quality|||
|Interference from Other IoT Devices||All||All||Low||Reduced Signal Quality|||
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© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Pons, M.; Valenzuela, E.; Rodríguez, B.; Nolazco-Flores, J.A.; Del-Valle-Soto, C. Utilization of 5G Technologies in IoT Applications: Current Limitations by Interference and Network Optimization Difficulties—A Review. Sensors 2023, 23, 3876. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23083876
Pons M, Valenzuela E, Rodríguez B, Nolazco-Flores JA, Del-Valle-Soto C. Utilization of 5G Technologies in IoT Applications: Current Limitations by Interference and Network Optimization Difficulties—A Review. Sensors. 2023; 23(8):3876. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23083876Chicago/Turabian Style
Pons, Mario, Estuardo Valenzuela, Brandon Rodríguez, Juan Arturo Nolazco-Flores, and Carolina Del-Valle-Soto. 2023. "Utilization of 5G Technologies in IoT Applications: Current Limitations by Interference and Network Optimization Difficulties—A Review" Sensors 23, no. 8: 3876. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23083876